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Advancements in real-time water monitoring technologies permit rapid detection of water quality, and threats from waste loads. Water Framework Directive mandating the…
Advancements in real-time water monitoring technologies permit rapid detection of water quality, and threats from waste loads. Water Framework Directive mandating the establishment of Member States’ water resources monitoring, presence of hazardous contaminants in effluents, and perception of vulnerability of water distribution system to attacks, have spurred technical and economic interests. The paper aims to discuss these issues.
As alternative to traditional analyzers, chemosensors, operate according to physical principles, without sample collection (online), and are capable of supplying parameter values continuously and in real-time. Their low selectivity and stability issues have been overcome by technological developments. This review paper contains a comprehensive survey of existing and expected online monitoring technologies for measurement/detection of pollutants in water.
The state-of-the-art in online water monitoring is presented. Application examples are reported. Monitoring costs will become a lesser part of a water utility budget due to the fact that automation and technological simplification will abate human cost factors, and reduce the complexity of laboratory procedures.
An overview of applicable instrumentation, and forthcoming developments, is given. Technological development in this field is very rapid, and astonishing advances are anticipated in several areas (fingerprinting, optochemical sensors, biosensors, molecular techniques). Online monitoring is becoming an ever-important tool not only for compliance control or plant management purposes, but also as a useful approach to pollution control and reduction, minimizing the environmental impact of discharges.
– The purpose of this paper is to develop improvements in the efficiency of the codigestion process.
The purpose of this paper is to develop improvements in the efficiency of the codigestion process.
Two pilot plants, fed by different compositions of manure and industrial organic waste, generating biogas by mesophilic and thermophilic anaerobic fermentation, respectively, were analysed.
It was observed that these processes do not commonly operate at maximum theoretical efficiency.
The limiting factor in the process was found to be the hydrolysis of the digested material.
A technical solution had been suggested: implementing a secondary (after) storage phase which has the purpose of exploiting, by promoting enhanced hydrolysis, the substrate potential that remains undigested after the traditional process.
The proposed configuration opens to original variations in the anaerobic digestion schemes.
It is well known that sustainability is the ideal driving path of the entire world and renewable energy is the backbone of the ongoing initiatives. The current topic of…
It is well known that sustainability is the ideal driving path of the entire world and renewable energy is the backbone of the ongoing initiatives. The current topic of argument among the sustainability research community is on the wise selection of processes that will maximize yield and minimize emissions. The purpose of this paper is to outline different parameters and processes that impact the performance of biogas production plants through an extensive literature review. These include: comparison of biogas plant efficiency based on the use of a diverse range of feedstock; comparison of environmental impacts and its reasons during biogas production based on different feedstock and the processes followed in the management of digestate; analysis of the root cause of inefficiencies in the process of biogas production; factors affecting the energy efficiency of biogas plants based on the processes followed; and the best practices and the future research directions based on the existing life cycle assessment (LCA) studies.
The authors adopted a systematic literature review of research articles pertaining to LCA to understand in depth the current research and gaps, and to suggest future research directions.
Findings include the impact of the type of feedstock used on the efficiency of the biogas plants and the level of environmental emissions. Based on the analysis of literature pertaining to LCA, diverse factors causing emissions from biogas plants are enlisted. Similarly, the root causes of inefficiencies of biogas plants were also analyzed, which will further help researchers/professionals resolve such issues. Findings also include the limitations of existing research body and factors affecting the energy efficiency of biogas plants.
This review is focused on articles published from 2006 to 2019 and is limited to the performance of biogas plants using LCA methodology.
Literature review showed that a majority of articles focused mainly on the efficiency of biogas plants. The novel and the original aspect of this review paper is that the authors, alongside efficiency, have considered other critical parameters such as environmental emission, energy usage, processes followed during anaerobic digestion and the impact of co-digestion of feed as well. The authors also provide solid scientific reasoning to the emission and inefficiencies of the biogas plants, which were rarely analyzed in the past.