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Article
Publication date: 11 December 2019

Patricia Loga and Anand Chand

There is extant literature on performance appraisal systems (PAS) in public sector globally; however, most of the literature focuses on PAS in public sector in large…

Abstract

Purpose

There is extant literature on performance appraisal systems (PAS) in public sector globally; however, most of the literature focuses on PAS in public sector in large developed and large developing countries. To the best of the authors’ knowledge, there is scant literature on PAS in the public sector of small developing countries. Hence, the purpose of this paper is to fill the research gap and analyse employee perceptions of the annual performance appraisal (APA) system and its implications in the Fiji’s public sector. It examines the APA more specifically in the case study of Ministry of Health and Medical Services in Fiji.

Design/methodology/approach

A mixed methods approach was undertaken and information collected from each research method was triangulated to ensure the reliability and validity of the findings.

Findings

This study found that the APA system shows promise of delivering on the expected outcomes for PAS. Similarly, staff morale was found to increase while employee behaviour improved with employee involvement and simple key performance indicators. However, much work needs to be done at the macro, meso and micro level of policy planning and implementation in order to ensure the success of APA.

Research limitations/implications

The limitations of this research are that it is based solely on Fiji’s experience and future research could expand this study to other developing country contexts, especially small island states.

Originality/value

After conducting a literature review on developed nations and research in a small developing country (Fiji), this paper produces two models: a PAS model in the developed country context and another in Fiji’s small developing country context. This paper contributes to the existing literature of PAS in the public sector and more specifically in the context of developing small island countries.

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Article
Publication date: 29 July 2014

Suwastika Naidu and Anand Chand

– The purpose of this paper is to comparatively analyse the best human resource management (HRM) practices in the hotel sector of Samoa and Tonga.

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Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to comparatively analyse the best human resource management (HRM) practices in the hotel sector of Samoa and Tonga.

Design/methodology/approach

This study examined best HRM practices used by the hotel sector of Samoa and Tonga by using self-administered questionnaires. Self-administered questionnaires were distributed to 73 hotels in Samoa and 66 hotels in Tonga. Out of the 73 self-administered questionnaires that were distributed in Samoa, 58 usable questionnaires were returned resulting in a response rate of 79 per cent. In the case of Tonga, out of the 66 self-administered questionnaires were distributed, 51 usable questionnaires were returned resulting in a response rate of 77 per cent.

Findings

The findings of this study show that there are 28 best HRM practices in Samoa and 15 best HRM practices in Tonga. This study also found that best HRM practices differ based on differences in internal and external environmental factors present in different geographical areas. The findings of this paper support the assumptions of the Contextual Paradigm of HRM and strategic human resource management.

Research limitations/implications

This study is based on a single sector of Samoa and Tonga. A single sector study limits the generalisations that can be made across different sectors in Samoa and Tonga.

Practical implications

Human resource managers should incorporate cultural, political, legal, economic and social factors in HRM practices.

Originality/value

None of the existing studies have examined best HRM practices used by the hotel sector of Samoa and Tonga. This study is a pioneering study that comparatively analyses the best HRM practices used by the hotel sector of Samoa and Tonga.

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Article
Publication date: 23 September 2013

Suwastika Naidu and Anand Chand

The main aim of this paper is to empirically test a model that has central government health expenditure and advancement in medical technology as two separate determinants…

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Abstract

Purpose

The main aim of this paper is to empirically test a model that has central government health expenditure and advancement in medical technology as two separate determinants of economic growth rates in the Pacific island countries (PICs).

Design/methodology/approach

The data used in this research have been collected from WHO and ADB database for the periods between 2000 and 2012. The model used to test the main research question is based on the variant Cobb-Douglas production function with constant returns to scale.

Findings

This research found that health expenditure has a significant impact on the economic growth rate of the PICs. This study also found that the contemporary level of usage of advanced medical technology in the PICs is relatively low as compared to the total population of the country. If the PICs need to achieve high levels of economic growth rates, governments of the PICs need to improve its expenditure in the health sector. Good and qualified doctors need to be hired and the medical education has to be made more competitive. Improvement in the health services in the PICs will reduce mortality, improve per capita health and improve the national economic welfare of Oceania region.

Research limitations/implications

Data availability was the major limitation in this research. Data were available for only seven PICs.

Practical implications

This research has implications for the academics, practitioners, and policy makers.

Social implications

The research findings from this research have implications for the society as it shows that health expenditure is positively related to economic growth rates.

Originality/value

In the context of the PICs, no studies have been conducted that have analysed the relationship between health expenditure, medical technology advancement and the economic growth rate of the PICs. This research seeks to build and extend the existing state of research on augmented Cobb-Douglas production function and health economics in the PICs.

Details

Asia-Pacific Journal of Business Administration, vol. 5 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1757-4323

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Article
Publication date: 7 October 2014

Suwastika Naidu, Anand Chand and Paul Southgate

– The purpose of this paper is to examine the determinants of innovation in handicraft industry of Fiji and Tonga.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine the determinants of innovation in handicraft industry of Fiji and Tonga.

Design/methodology/approach

Data for this study was collected via face-to-face interviews with handicraft sellers in Fiji and Tonga. In total, 368 interviews were conducted in Fiji and Tonga out of which, 48 was from Tonga and 320 was from Fiji.

Findings

The results of this study show that eight factors; namely, value adding, design uniqueness, new product development, cultural uniqueness, advanced technology, experience of owner, ability of owner to adapt to trends in market and quality of raw materials have significant impact on level of innovation in handicraft industry of Fiji and Tonga.

Originality/value

To date, none of the existing studies have examined determinants of innovation in handicraft industry of the Pacific Island countries. This is a pioneering study that examines determinants of innovation in handicraft industry of Fiji and Tonga.

Details

Journal of Enterprising Communities: People and Places in the Global Economy, vol. 8 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1750-6204

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Article
Publication date: 29 June 2012

Suwastika Naidu and Anand Chand

Globally, there is an increased recognition of the important role played by micro, small and medium enterprises (MSMEs) in the economic development of a country…

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2980

Abstract

Purpose

Globally, there is an increased recognition of the important role played by micro, small and medium enterprises (MSMEs) in the economic development of a country. Similarly, in the South Pacific region, MSMEs is the main engine behind the economic growth. In particular, MSMEs is one of the biggest contributors to GDP, employment and plays a core role in the supply chain of large businesses. One of the major problems faced by MSMEs in South Pacific Island countries is a lack of finance to advance business growth. Against this backdrop, the purpose of this paper will be to examine the financial obstacles faced by MSMEs.

Design/methodology/approach

The main objective of this study is to explore the financial obstacles faced by MSMEs in the manufacturing sector of Fiji and Tonga. In particular, this research tries to evaluate the severity of the impact of each of the financial obstacles on the growth and survival of MSMEs in Fiji and Tonga.

Findings

The research involved conducting a survey of 200 MSMEs in Fiji and Tonga. The study concluded that financial problems faced by the MSMEs could be divided into three broad categories: financing problems; operational and administrative problems; and sales and debtors problems. The 19 financial obstacles tested in this research falls under these broad categories.

Originality/value

This research is original and highly value to a wide range of readers. Scholars, practitioners, aid donors are widely interested to understand the status of MSMEs in Fiji and Tonga. Research of this nature has never been conducted in Fiji.

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Book part
Publication date: 25 September 2017

Eduardo Urias

There is sufficient evidence to prove that the improved health status of a nation’s citizens results in economic growth and development via improved functionality and…

Abstract

There is sufficient evidence to prove that the improved health status of a nation’s citizens results in economic growth and development via improved functionality and productivity of labor. It is also commonly accepted that healthcare expenditure significantly influences health status through, for instance, improving life expectancy at birth and reducing morbidity, death, and infant mortality rates. Within healthcare, medicines account for a considerable share of health-related expenditure in both developed and developing countries. Therefore, it seems reasonable to assume that improved access to medicines is likely to contribute not only to the well-being of families and individuals but also to the economic growth and development in all societies. It has been widely advocated that pharmaceutical multinational enterprises (MNEs) can play an important role to address this problem, as they develop and supply a significant proportion of the drugs imported by low- and middle-income countries. This chapter is dedicated to a systematic review of literature in order to identify the strategies implemented by pharmaceutical MNEs to improve access to medicines in the low- and middle-income countries. A total of 76 research articles have been identified, and we have found that the main strategies of pharmaceutical MNEs are related to improving health outcomes through R&D, establishing partnerships for product development, pricing strategies to improve access to medicines, technology transfer, licensing agreements, and nonmarket efforts to improve access to medicines, among other strategies to overcome barriers imposed by intellectual property rights. We have also found that pharmaceutical MNEs’ strategies take place within a complex system and often involve interactions with a wide range of actors, such as international organizations, governments, private not-for-profit sector, universities and research institutes, and generic manufacturers. However, there is still a need for major progress in the field of access to medicines, and pharmaceutical MNEs should be more active in this field in order to avoid potential negative consequences, such as loss of legitimacy and compulsory licensing of their patented medicines.

Details

International Business & Management
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78743-163-8

Keywords

Content available
Article
Publication date: 1 February 2016

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Abstract

Details

Personnel Review, vol. 45 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0048-3486

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Article
Publication date: 27 February 2020

Anastasia Katou, Pawan Budhwar and Mohinder D. Chand

This paper examines the relationship between timing of negotiations and idiosyncratic deals (i-deals) through the moderating effects of core self-evaluations (CSE), and…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper examines the relationship between timing of negotiations and idiosyncratic deals (i-deals) through the moderating effects of core self-evaluations (CSE), and between i-deals and employee reactions through the moderating effects of transformational leadership behaviour (TLB) in the Indian hospitality industry.

Design/methodology/approach

A total of 275 employees working in 39 companies responded to a self-administered questionnaire. To test the research hypotheses, the methodology of structural equation models was used.

Findings

The results show that the relationship between before hiring negotiations and i-deals is stronger for those individuals who had low self-worth, due to countervailing forces created by their belief that they may not be eligible for i-deals. In contrast, the relationship between after hiring negotiations and i-deals is stronger for those who had high self-worth, due to their belief that they were entitled to i-deals. Additionally, the research highlights that the relationship between i-deals and employee reactions is stronger for those organisations, which are high on TLB.

Research limitations/implications

The data does not allow for investigating dynamic causal inferences, because they were collected using a questionnaire at a single point in time, and they were reported in retrospect, raising measurement concerns about recall bias.

Practical implications

From a managerial point of view, the findings of this study inform that in negotiating both employment conditions and work arrangements, organisations should try to achieve i-deals that are primarily flexibility focused, and that in increasing efficiency organisations should make the employees feel well supported in order to develop more confidence in deploying skills and abilities to address a more open view of their i-deals.

Originality/value

The study contributes to our understanding about the Indian hospitality industry by utilising the self-enhancement theory in examining whether individual differences moderate the relationship between the timing of negotiations and i-deals, and also by utilizing the social exchange theory to examine whether TLB moderates the relationship between i-deals and employee reactions.

Details

Personnel Review, vol. 49 no. 7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0048-3486

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Article
Publication date: 3 July 2017

Mahesh Chand, Tilak Raj, Ravi Shankar and Aashish Agarwal

Risk management in supply chain (SC) is not an easy task due to different uncertainty and intricacy. Management of risk is necessary for smooth operation of SC. The…

Abstract

Purpose

Risk management in supply chain (SC) is not an easy task due to different uncertainty and intricacy. Management of risk is necessary for smooth operation of SC. The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate multi-criteria decision-making (MCDM) approaches to select the best SC which has minimum risks.

Design/methodology/approach

In proposed methodologies different steps, i.e. goal, risk attributes, risk sub-attributes and alternatives are identified for the selection of best SC using analytical network process which is being followed by the Multi-Objective Optimization by Rational Analysis method.

Findings

Findings of this paper are highly valuable for Indian manufacturing industries for risk management in SC. It helps the researchers and managers to deal with different types of uncertainty and risks associated with SC.

Research limitations/implications

This research is limited only for risk management in SC. Other issues in SC can be analyzed and further extended by other MCDM approaches.

Originality/value

This paper identified the different risks in SC and a systematic way to find out the best SC which helps the researchers and managers in risk mitigation.

Details

Benchmarking: An International Journal, vol. 24 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1463-5771

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Article
Publication date: 3 August 2015

Kaveh Moghaddam

The purpose of this paper is to identify the antecedents of successful South Asian opportunity diaspora entrepreneurship. Furthermore, it examines the successful South…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to identify the antecedents of successful South Asian opportunity diaspora entrepreneurship. Furthermore, it examines the successful South Asian diaspora opportunity entrepreneurs’ (DOE) interactions with their country of origin and country of residence.

Design/methodology/approach

With a qualitative approach, this study employs the NVivo software to examine a set of semistructured interviews of eight South Asian diaspora entrepreneurs.

Findings

The qualitative analysis in this study suggests that a South Asian DOE with a college education, previous industry-related experience, prior startup experience, and a tendency to attribute entrepreneurship talent to training rather than birth exhibits a high-entrepreneurial venture growth rate. Furthermore, the qualitative analysis suggests that a south Asian DOE who emphasizes market analysis, accentuates building the right team of employees, and pursues adventurous choice of financing (i.e. bootstrapping or small bank) exhibits a high-entrepreneurial venture growth rate.

Research limitations/implications

Due to the small sample and exploratory nature of the study, results may not be generalized. Future research is encouraged to test the robustness of the findings.

Practical implications

The findings of this qualitative study offer implications for immigrant individuals who might have interest in starting a new business and wonder what the ingredients of a diaspora entrepreneurship success recipe might be.

Originality/value

This study provides an enhanced understanding of diaspora opportunity entrepreneurship. Furthermore, it contributes to the qualitative approach by offering a novel research design to avoid common problems of researcher bias and mono-method bias.

Details

South Asian Journal of Global Business Research, vol. 4 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2045-4457

Keywords

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