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Article
Publication date: 19 September 2008

K. Bukat, J. Sitek, R. Kisiel, Z. Moser, W. Gasior, M. Kościelski and J. Pstruś

The purpose of this paper is a comparable evaluation of the influence of a particular element (Bi and Sb) added to Sn‐Ag‐Cu and Sn‐Zn alloys on their surface and…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is a comparable evaluation of the influence of a particular element (Bi and Sb) added to Sn‐Ag‐Cu and Sn‐Zn alloys on their surface and interfacial tensions, as well as the wetting properties on the Cu substrate expressed by the wetting angle.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors applied the L8 orthogonal Taguchi array to carry out the experiments and discussed the results using analysis of variance (ANOVA).

Findings

It was expected, on the base of previous studies, the decrease of the surface and interfacial tensions and thus improving wettability after the Bi and Sb addition to Sn‐Ag‐Cu and Sn‐Zn alloys. Unfortunately, the obtained results on the quinary Sn‐Ag‐Cu‐Bi‐Sb alloys and the quaternary Sn‐Zn‐Bi‐Sb alloys do not confirm these trends. The performed analyses suggest that the compositions of the quinary Sn‐Ag‐Cu‐Bi‐Sb alloys, as well as the quaternary Sn‐Zn‐Bi‐Sb alloys, do not have optimal compositions for practical application. The Cu, Bi and Sb elements in the case of the Sn‐Ag‐Cu‐Bi‐Sb alloys and the Zn, Bi and Sb elements in the case of the Sn‐Zn‐Bi‐Sb alloys show mutual interaction and, in consequence, there is no correlation between the tendency of the surface and interfacial tensions changes and the wettings of the Cu substrate.

Research limitations/implications

It is suggested that further studies are necessary for the purpose of the practical application, but they should be limited mainly to the Sn‐Ag‐Cu‐Bi and the Sn‐Zn‐Bi alloys with the optimal compositions.

Practical implications

The performed analysis suggests that none of the investigated compositions of the quinary Sn‐Ag‐Cu‐Bi‐Sb alloys, as well as the quaternary Sn‐Zn‐Bi‐Sb alloys, have the optimal compositions for practical application.

Originality/value

The quickest way to determine which element of the alloy composition influences the surface tension and the wetting properties, and how, is to apply orthogonal analysis. After choosing the orthogonal array, the experiments were performed and analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used to perform the quantifiable analysis of the measured and calculated results of surface and interfacial tensions, as well as the wetting properties on the Cu substrate.

Details

Soldering & Surface Mount Technology, vol. 20 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0954-0911

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Article
Publication date: 1 February 1998

John A. Bower

Describes multiple comparison procedures applied to three or more sample groups after ANOVA. Illustrates ANOVA applied to experiments with completely randomised design and…

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Abstract

Describes multiple comparison procedures applied to three or more sample groups after ANOVA. Illustrates ANOVA applied to experiments with completely randomised design and randomised block design.

Details

Nutrition & Food Science, vol. 98 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0034-6659

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Article
Publication date: 1 March 2006

Graeme Wines

This experimental study investigates the connotative (measured) meaning of the concept “auditor independence” within three audit engagement case contexts, including two…

Abstract

This experimental study investigates the connotative (measured) meaning of the concept “auditor independence” within three audit engagement case contexts, including two acknowledged in the literature to represent significant potential threats to independence. The study’s research design utilises the measurement of meaning (semantic differential) framework originally proposed by Osgood et al. (1957). Findings indicate that research participants considered the concept of independence within a two factor cognitive structure comprising “emphasis” and “variability” dimensions. Participants’ connotations of independence varied along both these dimensions in response to the alternative experimental case scenarios. In addition, participants’ perceptions of the auditor’s independence in the three cases were systematically associated with the identified connotative meaning dimensions.

Details

Pacific Accounting Review, vol. 18 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0114-0582

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Article
Publication date: 1 April 1997

John A. Bower

Describes statistical methods applied to three or more sample groups. Discusses analysis of variance in parametric forms and the requirement for experimental design…

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858

Abstract

Describes statistical methods applied to three or more sample groups. Discusses analysis of variance in parametric forms and the requirement for experimental design control before its application.

Details

Nutrition & Food Science, vol. 97 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0034-6659

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Article
Publication date: 1 March 1992

Orly Ben‐Yoav and Moshe Banai

This comparative study assesses the internal consistency reliability, rater bias, and convergent and discriminant validities of peer and self ratings for the MODE and…

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1281

Abstract

This comparative study assesses the internal consistency reliability, rater bias, and convergent and discriminant validities of peer and self ratings for the MODE and ROCI‐II conflict management instruments. Additionally, the study examines the convergent and discriminant validities, and method variance of the two conflict instruments. BBA students (N = 133), divided into small teams, participated in a Business Policy Simulation Game. Participants rated their own conflict management styles and the styles of all members of their teams. Higher internal consistency reliability scores were found for the ROCI‐II than for the MODE. The complementary analyses of an ANOVA and a standard multitrait‐multimethod analysis revealed greater convergence between the two rating sources on the dominating and avoiding styles for the MODE than for the ROCI‐II and higher convergence on the collaborating and compromising styles for the ROCI‐II than for the MODE. A moderately low convergence validity was found between the two instruments.

Details

International Journal of Conflict Management, vol. 3 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1044-4068

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Article
Publication date: 6 September 2016

Linda Zientek, Kim Nimon and Bryn Hammack-Brown

Among the gold standards in human resource development (HRD) research are studies that test theoretically developed hypotheses and use experimental designs. A somewhat…

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2948

Abstract

Purpose

Among the gold standards in human resource development (HRD) research are studies that test theoretically developed hypotheses and use experimental designs. A somewhat typical experimental design would involve collecting pretest and posttest data on individuals assigned to a control or experimental group. Data from such a design that considered if training made a difference in knowledge, skills or attitudes, for example, could help advance practice. Using simulated datasets, situated in the example of a scenario-planning intervention, this paper aims to show that choosing a data analysis path that does not consider the associated assumptions can misrepresent findings and resulting conclusions. A review of HRD articles in a select set of journals indicated that some researchers reporting on pretest-posttest designs with two groups were not reporting associated statistical assumptions and reported results from repeated-measures analysis of variance that are considered of minimal utility.

Design/methodology/approach

Using heuristic datasets, situated in the example of a scenario-planning intervention, this paper will show that choosing a data analysis path that does not consider the associated assumptions can misrepresent findings and resulting conclusions. Journals in the HRD field that conducted pretest-posttest control group designs were coded.

Findings

The authors' illustrations provide evidence for the importance of testing assumptions and the need for researchers to consider alternate analyses when assumptions fail, particularly the homogeneity of regression slopes assumption.

Originality/value

This paper provides guidance to researchers faced with analyzing data from a pretest-posttest control group experimental design, so that they may select the most parsimonious solution that honors the ecological validity of the data.

Details

European Journal of Training and Development, vol. 40 no. 8/9
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2046-9012

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Article
Publication date: 4 July 2016

Nicole Lux and Alex Moss

The purpose of this paper is to test the relationship between liquidity in listed real estate markets, company size and geography during different market cycles…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to test the relationship between liquidity in listed real estate markets, company size and geography during different market cycles, specifically pre-crisis (2002-2006) and post-crisis (2010-2014). Further, the study analyses the impact of stock liquidity on stock performance. In a previous study the authors examined the impact of liquidity on the valuation of European real estate shares. The result showed that there is a strong relationship between liquidity, valuation and market capitalisation post the Global Financial Crisis.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper studies the linkages between regional market liquidity and company size for 60 listed real estate companies globally and determines the key drivers of company stock market liquidity pre- and post-crisis as well as the impact on stock performance. Analysis of variance is used to test cross-sectional independence in market liquidity combined with the Tukey’s post hoc test. The selected test indicators of liquidity to capture market depth and market tightness are daily stock turnover as percentage of market capitalisation and daily bid-ask spreads.

Findings

Findings confirm previous studies that market liquidity factors are correlated globally over time indicating markets interdependence. However, sample groups by company size and geography form independent samples with different sample means, thus specific liquidity levels in each market may be different. First, stock turnover levels have not recovered post-crisis to pre-crisis levels in the majority of markets while spreads have continued moving downward to nearly insignificant levels in line with the rest of the equity market. Second, with regards to stock performance, the European bias previously detected is not apparent in the USA, and there is no evidence of the small cap vs large cap effect of small companies achieving superior returns, although smaller companies have outperformed in Europe and Asia in each of the last three years (2012-2014).

Practical implications

The key implication is that although spread levels for smaller companies are higher, implying a slight risk premium when investing in small companies, this did not manifest into consistent superior stock market returns in the periods studied. In a mature market such as the USA or UK, liquidity levels in terms of stock turnover are higher and spreads are lower thus reducing trading costs, making them more attractive for investors.

Originality/value

This research brings together previous analysis on stock market liquidity and stock performance on a global market level. It further tests the dependence of market liquidity on two key indicators, namely, geography and company size and analyses market changes with respect to liquidity pre- and post-crisis.

Details

Journal of Property Investment & Finance, vol. 34 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1463-578X

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Article
Publication date: 25 June 2021

Azamussan Syed and Munuswamy Shanmugam

The purpose of this study is to assess the effects of demographic groups (i.e. gender groups, marital status groups, age groups, income groups, experience groups…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to assess the effects of demographic groups (i.e. gender groups, marital status groups, age groups, income groups, experience groups, education groups and occupation groups) on socially responsible consumption (hereafter SRC) behaviour.

Design/methodology/approach

The study was carried out in Chennai city, the capital of Tamil Nadu state of India. A total of 214 responses were collected during the survey. The respondents were the university staff composed of lecturer/professor, lab instructor, admin staff and support staff. A socially responsible purchase and disposal scale has been used to measure SRC behaviour amongst consumers. The convenience sampling technique was used for data collection. Independent-samples t-test and one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) techniques were used for hypotheses testing.

Findings

Factor analyses confirmed the multidimensional structure of the SRC construct with the following axes: firms’ internal corporate social responsibility (hereafter CSR) performance, firms’ external CSR performance, firms’ environmental CSR performance and consumers’ personal social responsibility. In addition, this study found that demographic groups have no effects on SRC behaviour.

Research limitations/implications

The current research will be a step forward to a richer and more inclusive understanding of the effects of demographic groups on SRC behaviour.

Practical implications

This study would help managers to understand consumer markets, formulate strategy and develop sustainable products.

Originality/value

This study is amongst the few attempted to examine the effects of demographic groups on SRC behaviour amongst consumers. This research endeavoured to validate the multidimensional nature of the SRC construct.

Details

Social Responsibility Journal, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1747-1117

Keywords

Abstract

Details

Tourism Destination Quality
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-83909-558-0

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Article
Publication date: 6 September 2016

Greggory L. Keiffer and Forrest C. Lane

This paper aims to introduce matching in propensity score analysis (PSA) as an alternative statistical approach for researchers looking to make causal inferences using…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to introduce matching in propensity score analysis (PSA) as an alternative statistical approach for researchers looking to make causal inferences using intact groups.

Design/methodology/approach

An illustrative example demonstrated the varying results of analysis of variance, analysis of covariance and PSA on a heuristic data set. The three approaches were compared by results and violations of statistical assumptions.

Findings

Through the illustrative example, it is demonstrated how different statistical approaches can produce varied results. Only PSA mitigated pre-existing group differences without violating the assumption of independence.

Originality/value

This paper attempts to answer calls in the literature for more robust statistical methodologies to better inform human resource development practice and theory.

Details

European Journal of Training and Development, vol. 40 no. 8/9
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2046-9012

Keywords

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