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Article
Publication date: 13 July 2020

Mohsen pakdaman, Raheleh akbari, Hamid reza Dehghan, Asra Asgharzadeh and Mahdieh Namayandeh

For years, traditional techniques have been used for diabetes treatment. There are two major types of insulin: insulin analogs and regular insulin. Insulin analogs are…

Abstract

Purpose

For years, traditional techniques have been used for diabetes treatment. There are two major types of insulin: insulin analogs and regular insulin. Insulin analogs are similar to regular insulin and lead to changes in pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic properties. The purpose of the present research was to determine the cost-effectiveness of insulin analogs versus regular insulin for diabetes control in Yazd Diabetes Center in 2017.

Design/methodology/approach

In this descriptive–analytical research, the cost-effectiveness index was used to compare insulin analogs and regular insulin (pen/vial) for treatment of diabetes. Data were analyzed in the TreeAge Software and a decision tree was constructed. A 10% discount rate was used for ICER sensitivity analysis. Cost-effectiveness was examined from a provider's perspective.

Findings

QALY was calculated to be 0.2 for diabetic patients using insulin analogs and 0.05 for those using regular insulin. The average cost was $3.228 for analog users and $1.826 for regular insulin users. An ICER of $0.093506/QALY was obtained. The present findings suggest that insulin analogs are more cost-effective than regular insulin.

Originality/value

This study was conducted using a cost-effectiveness analysis to evaluate insulin analogs versus regular insulin in controlling diabetes. The results of study are helpful to the government to allocate more resources to apply the cost-effective method of the treatment and to protect patients with diabetes from the high cost of treatment.

Details

International Journal of Health Care Quality Assurance, vol. 33 no. 4/5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0952-6862

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Article
Publication date: 9 August 2011

Thomas Fischer

The purpose of this paper is to present a cybernetic way of seeing analog and digital along with a basic vocabulary for discussing assumptions underlying the use of both terms.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to present a cybernetic way of seeing analog and digital along with a basic vocabulary for discussing assumptions underlying the use of both terms.

Design/methodology/approach

Taking analog and digital not as properties of observed phenomena but as properties of observers, I ask not what is digital or analog, but what I do when I use these terms. I analyze introspectively, and report on, what I think my assumptions are when using the two terms.

Findings

I develop a basic vocabulary to describe engagements that I describe as analog or digital. This vocabulary is applicable beyond technical contexts and suitable also for discussing social and creative processes. It includes a kind of observer who I call matchmaker.

Research limitations/implications

The presented research is preliminary and subjective.

Originality/value

While previous discussions consider analog and digital as properties of observed phenomena, they are considered here as properties of observers. The presented discussion is sufficiently abstract to account for the analog and the digital at various scales, including electronic signal processing and human interaction. The author argues that discussions of engagements described as analog or digital must account for observers of these engagements, including those who act as their matchmakers.

Details

Kybernetes, vol. 40 no. 7/8
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0368-492X

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Article
Publication date: 1 June 1991

Magnus Paulsson

Analog designers working infields such as aerospace, the defense and nuclear industries, telecommunications and medical electronics have long faced a special problem when…

Abstract

Analog designers working infields such as aerospace, the defense and nuclear industries, telecommunications and medical electronics have long faced a special problem when trying to source application‐specific integrated circuits (ASICs) for their designs. Although digital ASICs have long been available with the degree of radiation hardening normally required for these applications, sourcing radiation‐hardened (‘rad‐hard’) analog ASICs has been much more difficult. In particular, the CMOS/SOS technology used very successfully to produce rad‐hard digital ASICs has long been considered to be fundamentally unsuitable for analog designs. Only now has CMOS/SOS technology been developed to the point where highly integrated, high‐performance rad‐hard analog ASICSs can be made readily available — thanks to a breakthrough by Swedish semiconductor specialists ABB HAFO that is now opening up new opportunities for analog designers everywhere.

Details

Aircraft Engineering and Aerospace Technology, vol. 63 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0002-2667

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Article
Publication date: 17 June 2008

Anatoliy Platonov

The purpose of this paper is to present the methods of concurrent optimization of the analogue and digital parts (software‐hardware) of estimating, identifying and…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to present the methods of concurrent optimization of the analogue and digital parts (software‐hardware) of estimating, identifying and filtering systems with adaptively adjusted analogue parts – adaptive estimation systems (AES).

Design/methodology/approach

Concurrent (complete) optimization of AES permits the determination of the most efficient algorithms for computing the estimates and the controls adjusting analogue units of AES in the way maximally improving the quality of observations delivered by them to the digital part. Performance of AES is assessed by the mean square error (MSE) of estimates which is constructed employing the models of input excitation, analogue and digital parts. Global extremum of MSE is searched by Bayesian methods taking into account the always bounded input range of AES and its possible overloading.

Findings

There are determined upper boundaries of potentially achievable accuracy of estimates, as well as optimal estimating and controlling observation units' algorithms, ensuring their achievement. New effects appearing in completely optimal AES are analysed.

Research limitations/implications

The paper presents the backgrounds of new and analytically complex approach. To clarify basic ideas and methods, the simplest but useful for applications single input‐single output and single input‐multiple output models of ASE were considered. The obtained results create wide field for further investigations.

Practical implications

The results of the paper can be applied in the development of new classes of high‐efficient adaptive data acquisition, measurement, controlling, communication and other systems.

Originality/value

Concurrent optimisation of AES is important task having no general solution until now. Known approaches allow only the separate optimisation of the analogue and digital parts. Presented original approach enables the correct formalisation and solution of this task that permits the design and realization of systems with characteristics close to theoretically achievable ones and exceeding the characteristics of the known systems of similar predestination.

Details

Kybernetes, vol. 37 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0368-492X

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Article
Publication date: 14 January 2014

Timothy J. Horn, Ola L.A. Harrysson, Harvey A. West II, Jeffrey P. Little and Denis J. Marcellin-Little

The aim of this study is to describe an improved experimental substrate for the mechanical testing of patient-specific implants fabricated using direct metal additive…

Abstract

Purpose

The aim of this study is to describe an improved experimental substrate for the mechanical testing of patient-specific implants fabricated using direct metal additive manufacturing processes. This method reduces variability and sample size requirements and addresses the importance of geometry at the bone/implant interface.

Design/methodology/approach

Short-fiber glass/resin materials for cortical bone and polyurethane foam materials for cancellous bone were evaluated using standard tensile coupons. A method for fabricating bone analogs with patient-specific geometries using rapid tooling is presented. Bone analogs of a canine radius were fabricated and compared to cadaveric specimens in several biomechanical tests as validation.

Findings

The analog materials exhibit a tensile modulus that falls within the range of expected values for cortical and cancellous bone. The tensile properties of the cortical bone analog vary with fiber loading. The canine radius models exhibited similar mechanical properties to the cadaveric specimens with a reduced variability.

Research limitations/implications

Additional replications involving different bone geometries, types of bone and/or implants are required for a full validation. Further, the materials used here are only intended to mimic the mechanical properties of bone on a macro scale within a relatively narrow range. These analog models have not been shown to address the complex microscopic or viscoelastic behavior of bone in the present study.

Originality/value

Scientific data on the formulation and fabrication of bone analogs are absent from the literature. The literature also lacks an experimental platform that matches patient-specific implant/bone geometries at the bone implant interface.

Details

Rapid Prototyping Journal, vol. 20 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-2546

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Article
Publication date: 25 October 2021

Erdem Tunca, Hasan Saribas, Hasim Kafali and Sinem Kahvecioglu

The purpose of this paper is to monitor the backup indicators in case of indicator failure and to minimize the situations when the pilot may be unable to monitor the…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to monitor the backup indicators in case of indicator failure and to minimize the situations when the pilot may be unable to monitor the indicator effectively in emergency situations.

Design/methodology/approach

In this study, the pointer positions of different indicators were determined with a deep learning-based algorithm. Within the scope of the study, the pointer on the analog indicators obtained from aircraft cockpits was detected with the YOLOv4 object detector. Then, segmentation was made with the GrabCut algorithm to detect the pointer in the detected region more precisely. Finally, a line including the segmented pointer was found using the least-squares method, and the exact direction of the pointer was determined and the angle value of the pointer was obtained by using the inverse tangent function. In addition, to detect the pointer of the YOLOv4 object detection method and to test the designed method, a data set consisting of videos taken from aircraft cockpits was created and labeled.

Findings

The analog indicator pointers were detected with great accuracy by the YOLOv4 and YOLOv4-Tiny detectors. The experimental results show that the proposed method estimated the angle of the pointer with a high degree of accuracy. The developed method can reduce the workloads of both pilots and flight engineers. Similarly, the performance of pilots can be evaluated with this method.

Originality/value

The authors propose a novel real-time method which consists of detection, segmentation and line regression modules for mapping the angle of the pointers on analog indicators. A data set that includes analog indicators taken from aircraft cockpits was collected and labeled to train and test the proposed method.

Details

Aircraft Engineering and Aerospace Technology, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1748-8842

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Article
Publication date: 1 May 2006

Maria Trinidad García Leiva, Michael Starks and Damian Tambini

The purpose of this paper is to review current policy and practice in management of analogue‐digital switch in broadcasting.

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Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to review current policy and practice in management of analogue‐digital switch in broadcasting.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper adopts a case study approach.

Findings

The paper finds that with regard the objectives of switch‐off, the broad policy aims of clearing spectrum, modernising infrastructure, and improving the services to the consumer are shared across the major countries studied. Uncertainty about the cash value and potential alternative uses of spectrum is natural given rapid technological change, but the common potential broadcasting uses include mobile television, high definition digital terrestrial television, and more digital broadcasters and channels, including regional and local developments.

Research limitations/implications

The study is restricted to Europe, Japan and North America.

Practical implications

The study has implications for assessment of European switchover strategies and role of Digital Terrestrial.

Originality/value

There are some overviews, but none of so up to date, nor with this geographical coverage.

Details

info, vol. 8 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1463-6697

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Article
Publication date: 1 February 1973

D.W. RUSSELL

This paper describes introductory studies in self patching analogue computer systems. The problem equations are processed digitally and a connection word generated. This…

Abstract

This paper describes introductory studies in self patching analogue computer systems. The problem equations are processed digitally and a connection word generated. This is then interrogated for analogue significance by a hybrid interface. The object of the project is to investigate analogue multiprocessing and parallelism at low cost.

Details

Kybernetes, vol. 2 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0368-492X

Open Access
Article
Publication date: 25 January 2018

Guillaume Rohat, Stéphane Goyette and Johannes Flacke

Climate analogues have been extensively used in ecological studies to assess the shift of ecoregions due to climate change and the associated impacts on species survival…

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1697

Abstract

Purpose

Climate analogues have been extensively used in ecological studies to assess the shift of ecoregions due to climate change and the associated impacts on species survival and displacement, but they have hardly been applied to urban areas and their climate shift. This paper aims to use climate analogues to characterize the climate shift of cities and to explore its implications as well as potential applications of this approach.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors propose a methodology to match the current climate of cities with the future climate of other locations and to characterize cities’ climate shift velocity. Employing a sample of 90 European cities, the authors demonstrate the applicability of this method and characterize their climate shift from 1951 to 2100.

Findings

Results show that cities’ climate shift follows rather strictly north-to-south transects over the European continent and that the average southward velocity is expected to double throughout the twenty-first century. These rapid shifts will have direct implications for urban infrastructure, risk management and public health services.

Originality/value

These findings appear to be potentially useful for raising awareness of stakeholders and urban dwellers about the pace, magnitude and dynamics of climate change, supporting identification of the future climate impacts and vulnerabilities and implementation of readily available adaptation options, and strengthening cities’ cooperation within climate-related networks.

Details

International Journal of Climate Change Strategies and Management, vol. 10 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1756-8692

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Article
Publication date: 1 July 1964

G. A.M.l.E.E. Bancroft M.

In a computer age, technological courses should contain some introduction to analogue computing. It is important that the professional electrical engineer's course should…

Abstract

In a computer age, technological courses should contain some introduction to analogue computing. It is important that the professional electrical engineer's course should give him a wide appreciation of analogue representation in the analysis of complete systems. It should place the analogue computer in correct perspective, showing it to be a rational development of the technique of analogue representation to give a flexible and powerful analytical tool.

Details

Education + Training, vol. 6 no. 7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0040-0912

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