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The purpose of this paper is to address firms’ decisions on corporate social responsibility (CSR) as a function of the economic environment. The paper focuses on corporate…
The purpose of this paper is to address firms’ decisions on corporate social responsibility (CSR) as a function of the economic environment. The paper focuses on corporate giving, a CSR dimension that is especially important in an economic downturn such as the one experienced by many European economies since 2007-2008.
A theoretical framework comprising product differentiation and market competition is proposed. The paper investigates whether adverse economic conditions refrain corporate giving or, alternatively, stimulate it as a differentiation and demand enhancing instrument. Econometric empirical testing on the business cycle properties of giving at an aggregate level is also conducted.
According to theoretical results, firms seem to refrain giving under adverse economic conditions in the short run. Empirically, the paper concludes for a pro cyclical contemporaneous relation of corporate giving with real gross domestic product, supporting the theoretical finding. In a dynamic perspective, however, giving causes revenues and firms tend to donate more than a few years after the downturn.
The paper examines the behaviour of an under researched component of corporate social responsibility, which is especially important in economic downturns - giving. It considers continuous degrees of market competition and differentiation.
The purpose of this paper is to examine how demographic characteristics contribute to consumers' decision on bank delivery channels' usage, namely the direct and indirect…
The purpose of this paper is to examine how demographic characteristics contribute to consumers' decision on bank delivery channels' usage, namely the direct and indirect demographic influence on channel usage frequency via cognitive and affective mediators.
The consumer usage frequency pattern concerning the main bank delivery channels and its determinants are modelled and analysed with a questionnaire sent to 24,000 bank customers. This stage was preceded by a series of in‐depth interviews to bank managers and bank customers.
Empirical evidence suggests that demographic variables' influence over consumers' usage frequency decision has both a direct and indirect component. These influences are identified by delivery channel.
The main limitation derives from the nature of empirical results and their generalization to other samples and contexts. Nevertheless, precautions recommended in the literature to overcome this limitation were followed.
Bank managers will benefit from knowing, by channel, which demographic characteristics have the desired direct and indirect impact on usage frequency. This information will improve bank managers' efforts to encourage customers to favour a specific delivery channel.
In the literature, only the direct influence of demographics is compared to the innovation attributes in order to explain the innovation adoption decision. By clarifying the impact of demographic variables, the paper provides a more robust perception on their role as determinants of the bank delivery channels' usage.
1. En guise d’introduction.‐ 2. Droit du tra vail, droit social et (des)ordre international.‐ 3. Droit du tra vail, droit social, légalité et droits sociaux.‐ 4. Droit du…
1. En guise d’introduction.‐ 2. Droit du tra vail, droit social et (des)ordre international.‐ 3. Droit du tra vail, droit social, légalité et droits sociaux.‐ 4. Droit du travail, droit social, légalité et correction des inégalités.‐ 5. Quelques mots á propos du rôle du Droit dutravail.‐ 6. Réflexions (supplémentaires) sur le droit du tra vail: les domaines possibles de spéculation théorique et de re cher che appliquée.‐ 7. En matière des orientations générales du droit du travail á l’époque contemporaine. ‐ 8. Le défi de la mondialisation.‐ 9. èour un modèle économique et so cial européen.‐ 10. A propos de Constitution européenne et ..... alentours.‐ 11. Le traitement juridique de la ques tion économique et sociale en Eu rope.‐ 12. Le mythe de la li bre concurrence.‐ 13. Quelques conclusions, pas conclusives.‐