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Article
Publication date: 20 June 2008

Amzad Hossain Kamal Naser

The purpose of this paper is to analyze the effectiveness of the GCC integration.

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1396

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to analyze the effectiveness of the GCC integration.

Design/methodology/approach

Both descriptive and comparative analyses are used. In order to measure the effectiveness, indicators like trends of trade, FDI inflows, joint venture project activities and technology diffusion are considered.

Findings

The analyses revealed that the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) regularly reviews the collective process of all the proposals to be executed. It also conducts an in‐depth analysis of all issues concerning the GCC states and their societies. The analyses also showed increasing trends in exports and imports, and high‐tech manufacturing after implementing customs union. In the same fashion, the number of joint venture projects, total capital investment and capital investment per project increase dramatically after executing customs union. The analysis further shows that the investment in large‐scale joint venture projects increases during the same period. The paper finds a sharp increase in FDI during the period between 2001 and 2004; within this period, the customs union has been implemented. This increased FDI is mainly due to the fact that the GCC attains enlarged domestic market size and stable economic growth after the GCC integration. The GCC integration also contributes to improve the push and pull factors of FDI that have further attracted increased FDI. The paper shows that the GCC countries have adapted and deployed new technology considerably quickly during the period 1999 to 2005 compared with the 1990s.

Practical implications

The study noticed improvements in all indicators as well as the push and pull factors that enhance effectiveness of the GCC integration. To attain more effective regional integration, a periodic review of all the issues concerning the GCC states and their societies in light of the advancement taking place in the Arab world and international arenas is vital.

Originality/value

The study finds that the effectiveness of the GCC integration is progressive. The integrators that measure effectiveness such as trends of trade, FDI inflows, joint venture project activities and technology diffusion show increasing trends.

Details

International Journal of Islamic and Middle Eastern Finance and Management, vol. 1 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1753-8394

Keywords

Content available
Article
Publication date: 24 July 2009

Joe Sarkis

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756

Abstract

Details

International Journal of Organizational Analysis, vol. 17 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1934-8835

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Article
Publication date: 24 July 2009

Amzad Hossain, Kamal Naser, Asif Zaman and Rana Nuseibeh

The purpose of this paper is to examine factors that influence women entrepreneurship development in Bangladesh.

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3440

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine factors that influence women entrepreneurship development in Bangladesh.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper adopts quantitative and qualitative analyses of possible factors that may affect the development of women entrepreneurships such as: age, education, socio‐culture, motivation, market information, business idea, enterprise creation, advocacy and decision making, enabling environment, and financing. A questionnaire was used to provide empirical evidence on the variables and to estimate the model employed by the study.

Findings

The analyses revealed that women face problems in establishing their own businesses in every step that they take. The desire for financial independence and decision making, market and informational network, availability of a start‐up capital, knowledge and skills, and responsibility towards children are the main factors that impact women's decision to become self‐entrepreneurs. The regression analysis, however, revealed that participation in women associations, advocacy, and decision making (self‐fulfillment) and knowledge are the main factors that affect women's decision to develop their business. Yet, the results indicated that religion does not influence women's entrepreneurship development.

Research limitations/implications

The questionnaire survey employed in this paper is confined only to a women population who passed grade five and above as semi‐educated or educated women respondents group. The paper excludes homeless women or those who live in the slum urban areas.

Practical implications

The outcome of this paper can be used by researchers, government, non‐governmental organizations, civil society, and local community to formulate effective policy that motivate women to become entrepreneurs. This will have a positive effect on women participation on the economic development of Bangladesh.

Originality/value

This paper will be the first to provide empirical evidence on factors that affect women's entrepreneurship development in the urban Bangladesh.

Details

International Journal of Organizational Analysis, vol. 17 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1934-8835

Keywords

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