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Article
Publication date: 18 May 2012

Pooja R. Singhania and Kasturi Senray

Starchy foods have been emphasized in the diet for reducing hyperglycemia and hyperinsulinemia. However, all starch containing foods respond differently, depending upon…

Abstract

Purpose

Starchy foods have been emphasized in the diet for reducing hyperglycemia and hyperinsulinemia. However, all starch containing foods respond differently, depending upon various other factors in food such as the amylose:amylopectin ratio, co‐ingredients, methods of cooking, etc. which also impact its metabolic response. During days of fast, in India, potato and sago are the most commonly used food to provide quick source of energy. The purpose of this paper is to determine the functional and nutritional quality of fasting foods such as potato and sago, having higher amylopectin content, with respect to their relative glycemic and insulin response in normal healthy volunteers.

Design/methodology/approach

The postprandial glycemic response to boiled potato and sago khichdi in relation to equal quantity of bread (reference) was compared using Relative Glycemic Potency (RGP) represented as the Glycemic Bread Equivalent (GBE) of foods. Five clinically healthy subjects were fed 100 g of test foods and standard, and their blood glucose and insulin response was recorded at fasting (0 min) and at 30, 60, 90 and 120 min.

Findings

It was found that both potato and sago khichdi produced peak glucose response at 30 min and levels returned to baseline within 60 min. The higher amylopectin content which facilitates faster absorption from the gastro‐intestinal tract and into the cell results in the total area under the curve (AUC) glycemic response to potato and sago khichdi to be significantly lower than that of bread (p < 0.05). The total AUC insulin response to potato (p <0.05) and sago khichdi was also lower than that of bread.

Practical implications

Therefore, starch‐based foods rich in amylopectin lead to quicker absorption of sugar to supply the energy to the energy‐deprived cells common in fasting condition.

Originality/value

The paper shows that the starch present in these fasting foods is typically characterized by a higher amylopectin:amylose ratio.

Details

Nutrition & Food Science, vol. 42 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0034-6659

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Article
Publication date: 13 February 2017

Olufunmilola Olaitan Oladunmoye, Ogugua Charles Aworh, Beatrice Ade-Omowaye and Gloria Elemo

This paper aims to examine the effects of substituting durum wheat semolina (DWS) with high-quality cassava starch (HQCS) in macaroni noodle production.

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to examine the effects of substituting durum wheat semolina (DWS) with high-quality cassava starch (HQCS) in macaroni noodle production.

Design/methodology/approach

The effect of substituting semolina with cassava starch in macaroni production at six levels, namely, 0, 20, 30, 50, 70, 100 per cent, and variation in hydration levels of 45, 50 and 55 per cent and their interaction were studied.

Findings

As substitution of DWS with HQCS increased from 0 to 50 per cent at 45 per cent hydration, amylose content increased from 15.91 to 22.79 per cent. However, beyond 50 per cent substitution level, the amylose content dropped significantly to 20.10 per cent. Yet, this reduction did not affect the extrusion ability of the doughs. Analysis of variance revealed that changes observed in the dough properties were not significant (p > 0.05).

Research limitations/implications

Trial productions of cassava macaroni noodles under factory processing conditions need to be explored. Also, cooking trials and consumer acceptability studies need to be conducted to pave the way for adoption by manufacturers.

Practical implications

Dried noodle products enjoy widespread popularity because of their shelf life, lower glycaemic indices, simplicity of preparation and moderate costs. This study showed the potential of substituting DWS with HQCS with no adverse effect on the dough and macaroni noodle characteristics.

Social implications

The adoption of the process described in this study would result in increased utilization of cassava, broaden existing food base and provide household food security for both rural and urban population.

Originality/value

This paper has shown the suitability of substituting DWS obtained from imported durum wheat, with HQCS: indigenous to Africa, for the economic benefit of macaroni manufacturers.

Details

Nutrition & Food Science, vol. 47 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0034-6659

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 1 May 1993

S.G. Ring

Starch is a valued structural component of many foods. Considersthe behaviour of starch as a macronutrient and as a structural componentof food materials.

Abstract

Starch is a valued structural component of many foods. Considers the behaviour of starch as a macronutrient and as a structural component of food materials.

Details

Nutrition & Food Science, vol. 93 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0034-6659

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Article
Publication date: 1 March 1974

C.T. Greenwood

Starch is the food‐reserve material of all higher plants, where it is stored in the form of characteristic, cold water‐insoluble particles known as starch granules. As…

Abstract

Starch is the food‐reserve material of all higher plants, where it is stored in the form of characteristic, cold water‐insoluble particles known as starch granules. As starches are polymers of glucose, which are readily assimilated, they form an important source of nutritional energy in the human diet. Indeed, a very high proportion of the world's food energy‐intake is as starch, and cultivation of plant sources rich in this polysaccharide are widespread. 82% of all food crops are composed of cereals and starchy root‐crops.

Details

Nutrition & Food Science, vol. 74 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0034-6659

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Article
Publication date: 15 June 2018

Solafa Abdulrahim Ali Hamad, Bahieldin I. Magboul, Abdel Moneim I. Mustafa and Isam A. Mohamed Ahmed

Sorghum is a vital cereal crop and staple food for many peoples around the globe having good nutritional and health-promoting bioactive compounds and recently received…

Abstract

Purpose

Sorghum is a vital cereal crop and staple food for many peoples around the globe having good nutritional and health-promoting bioactive compounds and recently received great attention as gluten-free food. However, sorghum grains contain low β-glucans contents, dietary fibre polysaccharides with great technological and disease prevention properties, and improving the concentration of these compounds in sorghum is very important. Thus, the purpose of this paper is to investigate the physicochemical and starch properties of high β-glucan sorghum inbred line (Tabat-NL) in comparison with two commercial cultivars (Wadakar and Tabat-C).

Design/methodology/approach

Grain samples of sorghum cultivars: white colour and low tannin cultivar (Tabat-C), red colour and high tannin sorghum, and new inbred line of white sorghum cultivar (Tabat-NL) were carefully cleaned, examined for physical properties (colour, hectolitre and 1,000 kernel weights, and endosperm texture), and ground to flour and assessed for chemical composition (moisture, protein, ash, carbohydrate, sugars, fibre and β-glucan contents). The starch was extracted and investigated for morphological characteristics and functional properties.

Findings

The results showed that Tabat-NL grains contain significantly (p=0.05) higher values of 1,000 kernel weight, hectolitre weight, total carbohydrate, amylopectin, dietary fibre and β-glucan compared to Tabat-C and Wadakar. Tabat-NL starch had greater (p=0.05) gelatinization temperature, viscosity, bulk density, and water and oil holding capacities and lower (p=0.05) acidity compared to Tabat-C and Wadakar.

Research limitations/implications

The outcomes of this study demonstrated that Tabat-NL grains had an excellent marketing and milling properties, health-promoting and disease-preventing potentials, and technological features for uses in functional and speciality foods.

Originality/value

To the best of our understating, this is the first study on the evaluation of sorghum cultivar with high β-glucan content and could thus provide the bases for further development and application of this important food grains.

Details

World Journal of Science, Technology and Sustainable Development, vol. 15 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2042-5945

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Article
Publication date: 10 July 2017

Elif Inan Eroglu and Zehra Buyuktuncer

Resistant starch, defined as all starch and starch-degradation products not absorbed by small intestine of healthy individuals, is included in the diet of individuals due…

Abstract

Purpose

Resistant starch, defined as all starch and starch-degradation products not absorbed by small intestine of healthy individuals, is included in the diet of individuals due to its prebiotic characteristics and protective effects against diseases like colon cancer, type II diabetes, obesity and cardiovascular diseases. Some cooking methods are known as effective on resistant starch content of foods. The purpose of this paper is to explore the effect of various cooking methods on resistant starch content of foods.

Design/methodology/approach

Potential health benefits and functional features of the resistant starch have been emphasized in the recent years. This review includes up-to-date scientific findings in different studies on the effect of various cooking methods on resistant starch content of foods. Advantages and nutritional quality of resistant starch are included to topic.

Findings

Cooking methods including baking, steaming and autoclave cooking increased the amount of the resistant starch of foods, but cooking method such as pressure cooking decreased the amount of the resistant starch of foods. Boiling, frying, microwave cooking and extrusion cooking have the potential of increasing the amount of resistant starch, which depends on the source of starch and the process conditions. Although frying method has a high potential to increase the resistant starch content of foods, it is inconvenient to recommend frying to modify resistant starch content of foods due to detrimental effects of frying and products on health.

Originality/value

This paper focuses on the effects of various cooking methods on resistant starch content of foods, which offers a promising future for the inartificial development of the prebiotic content of diet. Due to its potential health benefits, appropriate cooking methods should be preferred to increase resistant starch content of foods.

Details

Nutrition & Food Science, vol. 47 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0034-6659

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Article
Publication date: 1 January 1985

The formulated proposals for this legal principle in the trade battern of the European Community have again appeared in the EEC draft Directive. It has been many years in…

Abstract

The formulated proposals for this legal principle in the trade battern of the European Community have again appeared in the EEC draft Directive. It has been many years in coming, indicating the extreme difficulties encountered in bringing some sort of harmony in the different laws of Member‐states including those of the United Kingdom, relating to the subject. Over the years there were periods of what appeared to be complete inactivity, when no progress was being made, when consultations were at a stand‐still, but the situation was closely monitored by manufacturers of goods, including food and drink, in the UK and the BFJ published fairly detailed reviews of proposals being considered — in 1979 and 1981; and even as recently as the last few months — in “Consumerism in the Community”, the subject was briefly discussed.

Details

British Food Journal, vol. 87 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0007-070X

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Article
Publication date: 6 March 2017

Zhibang Qiao, Shanshan Lv, Jiyou Gu, Haiyan Tan, Junyou Shi and Yanhua Zhang

The purpose of this paper is to obtain high-solids-content and low-viscosity starch adhesive, and improve bonding strength of the pure starch adhesive.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to obtain high-solids-content and low-viscosity starch adhesive, and improve bonding strength of the pure starch adhesive.

Design/methodology/approach

Maize starch was treated by hydrochloric acid solution with different concentrations, and acid-thinned starch adhesive was prepared. Polyisocyanate as a crosslinking agent was added to improve water resistance of the pure starch adhesive.

Findings

The physical and chemical properties of the acid-thinned starch adhesive were characterised. Acid hydrolysis did not change structure of starch granules, but increased its crystallinity. After acid modification, starch granules became less smooth and some fragments appeared. Acid treatment had little influence on thermal stability of starch, when acid hydrolysis was not strong. High concentration of HCl solution led to starch granules being destroyed, resulting in decrease in bonding strength. The optimal HCl concentration was 0.5 mol/L. Polyisocyanate addition was beneficial to improve the bonding strength of the acid-thinned starch adhesive.

Research limitations/implications

Acid hydrolysis changed the properties of the starch adhesive.

Practical implications

Acid hydrolysis decreased viscosity of the starch adhesive and improved its solids content, which had a positive effect on the application of the starch adhesive.

Social implications

It was helpful to develop an environment-friendly, natural polymer-based wood adhesive.

Originality/value

The properties of acid-thinned starch and acid-thinned starch adhesive were studied.

Details

Pigment & Resin Technology, vol. 46 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0369-9420

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Article
Publication date: 11 July 2016

Marta Aurelia Horianski, Juan Manuel Peralta and Luis Alberto Brumovsky

The purpose of this study was to analyze the influence of epichlorohydrin (ECH) concentration and reaction time on the food-grade resistant starch production and its…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study was to analyze the influence of epichlorohydrin (ECH) concentration and reaction time on the food-grade resistant starch production and its pasting properties by using native cassava starch of Misiones-Argentina origin.

Design/methodology/approach

Cassava starch was modified using ECH (0.30 and 0.15 per cent) during 4 or 8 h. Digestibility was evaluated by determining resistant starch as total dietary fiber. Pasting properties and the cross-linking degree were studied using a micro-viscoamylograph (Brabender).

Findings

Resistant starch content was not influenced by ECH concentration and reaction time. Cross-linking was detected at higher reaction times (8 h) and ECH concentrations (0.30 per cent), where a decrease in viscosity peaks by more than 80 per cent was observed. Both pasting temperature and breakdown were increased, whereas a decrease in retrogradation was detected.

Practical implications

Starches can be suitable for different food applications. This is because of the ability to modify its pasting properties and the invariability of the in vitro digestibility of cassava starch as a result of using ECH (at concentrations approved by local and regional legislation) and reaction times of 4 and 8 h.

Originality/value

Information related to the modification of cassava starch using ECH is scarce or not available nowadays in literature.

Details

Nutrition & Food Science, vol. 46 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0034-6659

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Article
Publication date: 1 February 2013

B.A. Akinwande, O.A. Abiodun and I.A. Adeyemi

The aim of the study is to compare the effect of steaming method and time on the physico‐chemical properties of underutilized Dioscorea dumetorum with three more commonly…

Abstract

Purpose

The aim of the study is to compare the effect of steaming method and time on the physico‐chemical properties of underutilized Dioscorea dumetorum with three more commonly consumed Dioscorea rotundata, Dioscorea cayenensis and Dioscorea alata.

Design/methodology/approach

Raw and pre‐gelatinized flour were produced from the yam species. Pre‐gelatinization was done by steaming diced cubes in autoclave at 68,950 Nm‐2 for 5 min and in Barlett steamer at 98±2°C for 10, 20 and 30 min. Flour samples were analyzed for amylose content, swelling index, consistency, solubility, water absorption capacity, and iodine affinity for starch.

Findings

The physico‐chemical properties of the flours were affected by both species and steaming time. Pre‐gelatinization of the tuber reduced amylose content in all the yam species, which reduced further with increase in steaming time. Except for amylose content and iodine affinity for starch, D. dumetorum compared with D. rotundata and D. cayenensis in the parameters that were measured. Samples autoclaved for 5 min had value similar to those steamed in Barlett steamer for 10 and 20 min for all the parameters that were measured, except consistency.

Practical implications

It is very important to encourage the cultivation and utilization of D. dumetorum because of the high yield and nutritional composition to enhance the nutritional and financial well‐being of the populace.

Originality/value

Pre‐gelatinization is important as pre‐treatment for yam tubers. Underutilized D. dumetorum could be useful in ingredient formulation for product development, especially as a thickening agent.

Details

Nutrition & Food Science, vol. 43 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0034-6659

Keywords

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