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The purpose of this paper is to assess the occurrence of the extended-spectrum β-lactamases (ESBLs) and AmpC β-lactamase genes in 144 Escherichia coli isolates recovered…
The purpose of this paper is to assess the occurrence of the extended-spectrum β-lactamases (ESBLs) and AmpC β-lactamase genes in 144 Escherichia coli isolates recovered from 160 vegetable salad samples.
Among the 144 E. coli isolates recovered from 160 vegetable salads, 17 (12 percent) ceftazidime-resistant isolates were screened for ESBL production with the double disk-diffusion test. The ESBL-producing isolates were characterized for antimicrobial resistance, the presence of virulence genes and plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance (PMQR) determinants. The isolates were also subjected to phylogenetic group typing. The existence of plasmid AmpC genes and mutations in the regulatory region of the chromosomal AmpC gene was assessed using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and sequencing. All β-lactamase isolates were further characterized by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis to determine the genetic relatedness.
Overall, 17 (12 percent) of the 144 E. coli isolates studied were ceftazidime resistant. Among the 17 isolates, 13 (77 percent) were multidrug resistant and four (23.5 percent) were ESBL producers. The bla CTX-M14 was the only gene detected. Of the 12 AmpC-producing isolates, three (18 percent) harbored plasmid-encoded AmpC and sequencing analysis of the chromosomal AmpC genes revealed mutations in the promoter/attenuator region. PMQR determinants were detected in 9 (52 percent) isolates. A was the most prevalent phylogenetic group (56 percent), followed by groups B1 (31 percent), D (6 percent), and B2 (6 percent). PCR showed that six (50 percent) ESBL/AmpC-producing E. coli isolates carried one and/or two virulence genes. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis showed no epidemiological relationship between these isolates.
This study places vegetable salads within the spectrum of ecological niches that may be vehicles for antibiotic-resistant bacteria/genes with clinical interest and these findings are worthy of attention as their spread to humans by ingestion cannot be dismissed.
Broad-spectrum cephalosporin resistance is rapidly increasing in Escherichia coli, representing a food safety problem. The purpose of this paper is to characterize eight…
Broad-spectrum cephalosporin resistance is rapidly increasing in Escherichia coli, representing a food safety problem. The purpose of this paper is to characterize eight extended-spectrum-ß-lactamase (ESBL) and acquired AmpC ß-lactamase-producing E. coli isolates and virotypes associated, obtained from chicken and pork food samples in Puebla, Mexico.
Samples (36 from chicken and 10 from pork) were cultured on Levine agar plates supplemented with cefotaxime (2 mg/L) for isolation of cefotaxime-resistant (CTXR) E. coli. CTXR-E. coli isolates were detected in 33 of 46 samples (72 percent), and one isolate/sample was characterized (28 from chicken and 5 from pork), for ESBL production, phylogenetic group, sequence typing, resistance and virulence genes by PCR and sequencing.
Results showed 16 ESBL-E. coli (35 percent) (12/16 belonging to phylogroup B1) and 8 CMY-2-E. coli (17 percent). ESBL detected were as follows (number of isolates): CTX-M-2 (8); CTX-M-1 (2); CTX-M-15 (1); SHV-2a (4) and TEM-52c (1). In total, 20 different sequence types (STs) were identified among the ESBL- or CMY-2-producing E. coli strains, which included four new ones. The CTX-M-15 β-lactamase was detected in one E. coli ST617-ST10 Cplx-B1 strain that also carried ibeA gene. One CMY-2-positive strain of lineage ST224-B2 was detected and it carried the qnrA1 gene.
In this study, a ST131-based virotyping scheme for strains from food of animal origin was established since this kind of strains constitutes an important vehicle of virulent ESBL- and CMY-2-producing E. coli isolates, which could be transmitted to humans by direct contact or through the food chain.