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Article
Publication date: 5 June 2017

Amit K. Ghosh

The constantly changing prices, promotions, and packaging options have made decision making more complex for consumers of packaged goods. The purpose of this paper is to…

Abstract

Purpose

The constantly changing prices, promotions, and packaging options have made decision making more complex for consumers of packaged goods. The purpose of this paper is to explore how price and promotions influence consumer propensity to buy a certain package size.

Design/methodology/approach

Scanner panel data for shelf-stable salad dressing obtained from Information Resources Inc. were used to compute the proportion of large packages bought, the relative price paid for large packages, propensity to use various types of promotions, and a behavioral covariate for each household. Data of over 5,600 households were analyzed using a multiple regression analysis for hypothesis testing.

Findings

The positive nature of relationship between the relative price of large packages and the proportion of large packages bought demonstrates the suboptimal nature of consumer decision making. The inefficiency is partially attributable to the abundance of promotions, to consumers’ lack of price awareness, and to the use of heuristics by consumers. Also, consumers who are prone to use promotions such as displays and temporary price reductions tend to purchase larger packages. They are more likely to buy impulsively and base their decisions on heuristics. In contrast, consumers who are influenced by featured price cuts and who utilize coupons tend to purchase smaller packages.

Research limitations/implications

Data were obtained from grocery stores; only a single product category was studied.

Practical implications

Offer coupons and advertise featured price cuts on small packages to increase the sales of smaller packages. To move large packages successfully, retailers should rely more on in-store displays and temporary price reductions.

Originality/value

The impact of price and promotions on package size propensity has never been investigated. This study is also one of the few that uses a household-level analysis based on observable purchase data for consumer packaged goods.

Details

American Journal of Business, vol. 32 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1935-5181

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 1 April 1998

Amit K. Ghosh

Liberalization policies of the Mexican government in the last decade and the enactment of NAFTA in 1994 have provided US firms with an opportunity to expand into Mexico…

Abstract

Liberalization policies of the Mexican government in the last decade and the enactment of NAFTA in 1994 have provided US firms with an opportunity to expand into Mexico. Before entering the Mexican market, however, managers should be aware of current conditions in Mexico and of the changes likely over the short term and long term. This paper explores which market opportunities are available immediately, which over the next five years, and which over the next decade. Brand management guidelines to exploit each are suggested.

Details

Journal of Product & Brand Management, vol. 7 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1061-0421

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 1 July 1997

Amit K. Ghosh and Martha C. Cooper

Canadian and United states managers identified NAFTA‐related benefits and threats. These factors were related to the managers' overall perceptions of the effect of NAFTA…

Abstract

Canadian and United states managers identified NAFTA‐related benefits and threats. These factors were related to the managers' overall perceptions of the effect of NAFTA on firm performance. Results indicated that NAFTA's perceived benefits include increased access to the Mexican market and to other Latin American markets, improved customs procedures, and increased effectiveness and efficiency in logistics. However, managers were concerned about inefficiencies in logistics and customs procedures, currency fluctuations, and differences in culture and business practices. Managers with little experience in Mexico had lower estimates of NAFTA's potential benefits, the barriers to trade in Mexico, and NAFTA's potential positive impact on their firm's performance. They also believed that NAFTA's primary influence on firm performance arises from the increased access to Latin American markets, while barriers in Mexico were discounted. The view of experienced managers was balanced: NAFTA's benefits were weighed against Mexico's drawbacks. Access to the Mexican market was important, but not as important as logistics‐related benefits.

Details

The International Journal of Logistics Management, vol. 8 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0957-4093

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 1 December 1995

Amit K. Ghosh, Goutam Chakraborty and Debra Bunch Ghosh

Points out that since consumers are seldom familiar with all thecompeting brands or the attributes of these brands, brand uncertaintyexists in every market. Presents…

Abstract

Points out that since consumers are seldom familiar with all the competing brands or the attributes of these brands, brand uncertainty exists in every market. Presents theoretical and empirical evidence from several disciplines to demonstrate that brand uncertainty affects brand attitudes and preferences, and consequently affects brand performance. Demonstrates the importance of actively managing brand uncertainty. Identifies and discusses marketing tools that can be used to reduce brand uncertainty at different stages in the consumer decision process. Discusses how managers can modify these tools to deal with high‐involvement versus low‐involvement products, how these tools should be scheduled for maximum impact, and the amount of control managers have over each tool.

Details

Journal of Product & Brand Management, vol. 4 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1061-0421

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 1 August 2004

Amit K. Ghosh and Goutam Chakraborty

Managers often use positioning models to understand the perceptual structure of markets and make strategic plans. The objective of this paper is to improve strategic…

Abstract

Managers often use positioning models to understand the perceptual structure of markets and make strategic plans. The objective of this paper is to improve strategic planning by suggesting how positioning models can be used to understand, measure, and manage brand uncertainty. A theoretical framework is developed by unifying the results of studies conducted in several disciplines and this framework is used to document the effects of brand uncertainty on brand perceptions and performance. An experiment that empirically establishes the utility of Multiscale in measuring brand uncertainty is designed and conducted. Its results are favorable. A consideration of the limitations of conventional positioning methods leads to the conclusion that, for marketplaces where brand uncertainty exists, such methods provide erroneous and incomplete information. Ways are suggested in which the information provided by Multiscale can be used to improve the breadth and quality of marketing plans.

Details

Journal of Product & Brand Management, vol. 13 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1061-0421

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 1 December 1997

Amit K. Ghosh

In the last two decades, allocation of promotional dollars has moved increasingly from advertising to sales promotions, such as couponing. However, a short‐term focus on…

Abstract

In the last two decades, allocation of promotional dollars has moved increasingly from advertising to sales promotions, such as couponing. However, a short‐term focus on brand performance could jeopardize long‐term brand prospects unless promotional dollars are carefully targeted and based on the needs of the target market. Using scanner panel data, which are widely available, suggests how managers could evaluate current promotional strategies, identify potential opportunities and threats, and refocus promotional efforts to increase the efficiency and effectiveness of promotional plans.

Details

Journal of Product & Brand Management, vol. 6 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1061-0421

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 1 December 2004

Amit K. Ghosh, W. Benoy Joseph, John T. Gardner and Sharon V. Thach

Due to the increased domination of industrial sales channels by distributors, suppliers must develop strong relationships with industrial distributors in order to succeed…

Abstract

Due to the increased domination of industrial sales channels by distributors, suppliers must develop strong relationships with industrial distributors in order to succeed in new markets. Initiating partnering relationships with distributors in new markets, however, entails significant risks and commitments with the prospect of substantial long‐term rewards. To help suppliers assess and select distributor partners, this study focuses on the starting‐point of the relationship by exploring industrial distributors' expectations of benefits. A nationwide survey of US industrial distributors showed that distributors expect financial and competitive differentiation benefits with greater differentiation benefits inferred to lead to fewer financial benefits. Several observable distributor characteristics can be used by suppliers to conduct preliminary assessments of distributor expectations and thereby prepare for a healthy future relationship.

Details

Journal of Business & Industrial Marketing, vol. 19 no. 7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0885-8624

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 1 June 2005

Rajshekhar (Raj) G. Javalgi, Thomas W. Whipple, Amit K. Ghosh and Robert B. Young

This article proposes investigating implications for service providers who adopt a market orientation. It hopes to extend current thinking by integrating market…

Abstract

Purpose

This article proposes investigating implications for service providers who adopt a market orientation. It hopes to extend current thinking by integrating market orientation and market‐focused strategic flexibility.

Design/methodology/approach

A model is extended to apply to services marketing. The “strategic wheel of service performance” provides a framework to discuss the managerial implications from integration of market orientation, strategic flexibility, competitive advantage, and service performance.

Findings

The impact of developing a market orientation should be higher levels of customer relationship marketing (CRM), retention, satisfaction, loyalty, and lifetime value (LTV). Increases in one or more of these interrelated variables should help service providers improve their judgmental and objective performance.

Research limitations/implications

More research needs to be conducted to expand the market orientation philosophy to the service provider. Subjecting the framework to analytic rigor would allow scholars and practitioners to understand more fully the inter‐relatedness of the service implications.

Practical implications

Practice implications of the paper are: the service economy is an opportunity to practice market orientation; investments in customer profitability, retention, and loyalty programs pay dividends; A market orientation enhances financial and strategic performance; integration of principles across organizational boundaries requires a long time; financial and strategic business performance criteria need to be quantified; cross‐functional customer feedback mechanisms need to be designed; and market orientation must be integrated across all service function providers.

Originality/value

The conceptual framework integrates market orientation, market‐focused strategic flexibility, strategic competitive advantage, and subjective and objective performance outcomes as applied to service providers. The discussion strengthens the strategic value of market orientation and provides managerial implications for the services sector.

Details

Journal of Services Marketing, vol. 19 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0887-6045

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Article
Publication date: 1 March 2021

Amit Ghosh

Using an extensive data set of 137 nations spanning the period 2002–2014, this paper aims to examine the effect of banking sector openness on entrepreneurship, as measured…

Abstract

Purpose

Using an extensive data set of 137 nations spanning the period 2002–2014, this paper aims to examine the effect of banking sector openness on entrepreneurship, as measured by new business entry rate.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper uses a panel data estimation framework covering 137 nations during 2002–2014. This study uses fixed effects, two-stage instrumental variables, two-step systems-generalized method of moments and difference-in-difference estimation methodologies.

Findings

Greater banking sector openness significantly increases new business formations. This paper finds a one-unit increase in the share of non-residential bank loans leads to 1.25 new business start-ups in the average nation. Likewise, a unit increase in the ratio of external to domestic deposits raises new business formation by 1.31 new businesses. Furthermore, the positive impact of banking sector openness on entrepreneurial activities is strengthened in nations with deeper financial markets, ones with better business environments to start a business and those with higher economic growth and development.

Practical implications

These findings have key implications for policy measures on both institutional business entry reforms and banking sector openness and the interaction between the two. From a policy perspective, the results show greater banking sector openness can only maximize its benefits on entrepreneurship in the presence of an effective institutional framework and sound macroeconomic fundamentals in host nations. It is also imperative that policymakers simplify regulations for the entry of new businesses. Additionally, achieving higher economic growth rates and greater economic affluence should allow both current and potential business owners to respond better to changes in financing conditions like greater access to loans from foreign banks.

Originality/value

Entrepreneurship and new business formation are central to any economic and business activity in a nation. The entrance of new firms into an economy creates jobs, fosters research, diffusion of knowledge and innovation and contributes to economic growth. Liberalizing a nation’s banking industry may represent an invaluable source of capital for new entrepreneurs and foster the creation of new companies. However, there is scant literature that has empirically examined the impact of opening up a nation’s banking sector on new business formations.

Details

Journal of Financial Economic Policy, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1757-6385

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Article
Publication date: 20 March 2017

Amit Ghosh

Using data on 5,491 commercial banks in the USA that were operational between 2001 second quarter and 2016 first quarter, the present study aims to examine the impact of…

Abstract

Purpose

Using data on 5,491 commercial banks in the USA that were operational between 2001 second quarter and 2016 first quarter, the present study aims to examine the impact of derivative securities and its different constituent categories on bank-specific risks and profitability.

Design/methodology/approach

The study uses panel data fixed effects model and Bayesian model averaging techniques.

Findings

This study finds aggregate derivatives and both interest-rate and exchange-rate derivatives and their different constituent categories to reduce banks insolvency risks for the entire time period and the pre-crisis era. Moreover, aggregate derivatives increase banks’ risk-adjusted return on assets that are driven by exchange-rate derivatives. Such findings are robust to the size of banks, the degree of derivative use and extent of profitability. However, in the post-crisis period, derivatives reduce bank profits.

Practical implications

While the results largely provide evidence of the beneficial effects of derivatives, the findings for the post-crisis period are rather concerning. It underscores a clear need to improve regulation and supervision across different categories of derivatives to ensure the benefits exceed their costs for banks.

Originality/value

Disaggregate analysis of derivatives can not only unmask important differences in how they affect banks risks, profits, etc. but also help banks mitigate risks arising from specific types of derivative securities banks hold. Furthermore, discerning the impact of derivatives on banks risks and profits in the post-crisis era vis-à-vis the pre-crisis one is extremely important to restore a sounder banking system and foster overall financial stability.

Details

The Journal of Risk Finance, vol. 18 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1526-5943

Keywords

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