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Article
Publication date: 1 February 2002

P. Kalenda and A. Kalendová

The paper deals with the mode of film formation from urea–formaldehyde and melamine–formaldehyde resins combined with alkyd resin based on castor oil‐modified alkyd. The…

Abstract

The paper deals with the mode of film formation from urea–formaldehyde and melamine–formaldehyde resins combined with alkyd resin based on castor oil‐modified alkyd. The properties of hardened coatings (such as hardness, chemical stability, and adhesion to substrate) were followed in dependence on the ratios of reaction components. An apparatus was built for measuring the formaldehyde emissions escaping from the solid coating films. The determination was performed by the pararosaniline method. The addition of imidazolidine in a concentration up to 10 per cent can reduce the emissions of formaldehyde escaping from the solid films to a considerable amount.

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Pigment & Resin Technology, vol. 31 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0369-9420

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Article
Publication date: 1 January 1996

F.F. Abd El Mohsen, R.M. Mohsen and Y.M. Abu Ayana

Modern glues are manufactured with high moisture and water resistance; urea‐formaldehyde resins for gluing purposes are based on the fact that excellent control of the…

Abstract

Modern glues are manufactured with high moisture and water resistance; urea‐formaldehyde resins for gluing purposes are based on the fact that excellent control of the condensation reaction is possible by variation of pH, which can be applied easily at the production process. Among conclusions is that the shear stress of these resins is twice that of the unmodified type.

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Pigment & Resin Technology, vol. 25 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0369-9420

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Article
Publication date: 1 June 1975

A.J. Jolly

The inclusion of the word ‘some’ in the above title is essential. When reviewing even a fraction of all the literature dealing with current and likely future developments…

Abstract

The inclusion of the word ‘some’ in the above title is essential. When reviewing even a fraction of all the literature dealing with current and likely future developments in the synthetic resins field, it becomes apparent that any paper adequately covering this would be far too long to be of any use in a symposium such as this. It has therefore been necessary to highlight certain aspects which are of a major nature on the one hand and more familiar to the author on the other.

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Pigment & Resin Technology, vol. 4 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0369-9420

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Article
Publication date: 1 May 2019

Bo Wang, Yanhua Zhang, Haiyan Tan and Jiyou Gu

The purpose of the study was to prepare melamine-urea-formaldehyde (MUF) resin that would be resistant to boiling water and high temperature and exhibit low formaldehyde emission.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of the study was to prepare melamine-urea-formaldehyde (MUF) resin that would be resistant to boiling water and high temperature and exhibit low formaldehyde emission.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors prepared MUF resin with different F/(M + U) and changed the amount of melamine added, through the analysis of MUF resin properties to get the best reaction parameters, and used different amino acid cure systems including NH4Cl cured the resin.

Findings

Resin’s heat resistance and water resistance are mainly determined by the amount of melamine added, and formaldehyde emission of the plywood can be changed by adjusting F/(M + U). The peak temperature of the curing agent-cured resin increases as compared with the self-curing resin. Stronger the acidity of curing agent, faster the viscosity increased in probation period and lower the bonding strength and heat resistance of the resin.

Research limitations/implications

Melamine improves the heat resistance and water resistance of the resin. When the amount of melamine is more than a certain value, water resistance of the resin decreased.

Practical implications

MUF resin that is resistant to boiling water and exhibits low formaldehyde emission can be used in high temperature, high humidity and strict formaldehyde emission environment and can also be combined with other materials.

Social implications

It was helpful to reduce the effect of formaldehyde emission on people’s health and environmental pollution and is also beneficial for the expansion of the application range of aldehyde resin.

Originality/value

The originality is twofold: the influence of the acid strength of curing agent on the bonding strength of the resin adhesive and the method for preparing high performance MUF resin by following the traditional process.

Details

Pigment & Resin Technology, vol. 48 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0369-9420

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Article
Publication date: 1 January 1964

J.P.M. Denny

Of all the resins used by paint technologists in the formulation of paints the most interesting, as a class, are the epoxy resins. This interest stems, not from their…

Abstract

Of all the resins used by paint technologists in the formulation of paints the most interesting, as a class, are the epoxy resins. This interest stems, not from their chemical composition, but from the enormous range of practical uses to which these resins can be put. An attempt has been made in this paper, read to the N.E. branch of BACE, to rationalise the common ways in which epoxy resins are used as protective film formers and to simplify the choice of systems for any particular corrosion problem.

Details

Anti-Corrosion Methods and Materials, vol. 11 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0003-5599

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Article
Publication date: 1 July 1976

J.M. Rackham

A well appreciated difficulty in paint formulation is the scaling‐up of laboratory data, and to obtain optimum performance on a commercial scale adjustments in p.v.c. (f…

Abstract

A well appreciated difficulty in paint formulation is the scaling‐up of laboratory data, and to obtain optimum performance on a commercial scale adjustments in p.v.c. (f) and in resin solids concentration have to be made. In the laboratory the millable p.v.c. (f) of a given formulation may be above, or more usually below, the value indicated by the flowpoint data, and depends mainly on the ability of the particular milling machine to cope with the quantity and nature of the millbase. In large‐scale manufacture using high‐speed shear impellers, a somewhat higher value than the experimentally determined p.v.c. (f) can be used, but for a ballmill it will be only slightly higher than the value millable in the laboratory. The concentration of resin solids has also to be adjusted, and here it is important to ensure that it is high enough to prevent pigment reagglomeration on let‐down.

Details

Pigment & Resin Technology, vol. 5 no. 7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0369-9420

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Article
Publication date: 6 March 2017

Mohammad Fahim Ansari and Gautam Sarkhel

The purpose of this study is to improve the coating properties of shellac–epoxidised novolac blends by treatment with melamine formaldehyde resin (MF) at ambient…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to improve the coating properties of shellac–epoxidised novolac blends by treatment with melamine formaldehyde resin (MF) at ambient temperature for its use as a coating material.

Design/methodology/approach

Epoxidised-novolac resin was synthesised by epoxidation of novolac resin with epichlorohydrin. Novolac resin was synthesised by reaction of phenol with formaldehyde in acidic medium. Shellac was blended with the epoxidised-novolac resin in solution in varying ratios and treated the blends with MF resin in fixed ratio. Coating properties of the treated compositions were studied using a standard procedure. The compositions were characterised with Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and scanning electron microscopic (SEM) spectroscopy.

Findings

Treatment of shellac–epoxidised-novolac blends with MF resin improved water and alkali resistance of the blends, besides enhancing gloss. Gloss in all the blends was uniformly increased on treatment with MF resin. Water resistance of the blends tremendously improved after treatment with MF resin. Contact angle of the blends against water increased while decreased against ethylene glycol and dioxane. The compositions were more resistant to polar solvent than non-polar ones, suggesting that the compositions shifted to hydrophobic (lipophilic) nature on treatment with the MF resin.

Research limitations/implications

A specified concentration of MF resin was used in the study. Different concentrations of the MF resin can also be tried for treatment of shellac–epoxidised-novolac blends to see the effect of the resin on the blends.

Practical implications

Treatment of shellac–epoxidised-novolac blend with MF resin improved the coating properties of the blends. The formulation SeNB-64 is the best with high gloss, good impact, scratch hardness and water resistance, and hence can be used as coating material for metal surfaces.

Originality/value

Blending of shellac with epoxidised-novolac resin and treatment of the blends with the MF resin was done for the first time. The formulation SeNB-64 can be used as coating material for metal surfaces.

Details

Pigment & Resin Technology, vol. 46 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0369-9420

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Article
Publication date: 27 March 2007

F.F. Abdel‐Mohsen and H.S. Emira

To improve the efficiency of flame retardant paints for wood by using different fillers and thermoplastic and thermosetting binders.

Abstract

Purpose

To improve the efficiency of flame retardant paints for wood by using different fillers and thermoplastic and thermosetting binders.

Design/methodology/approach

For effective flame retardancy, various paint compositions were made by incorporating different binders and fillers. The physical and mechanical properties, of the paint films, storage stability, limited oxygen index (LOI) and differential thermal analysis were investigated.

Findings

Diammonium hydrogen orthophosphate has all the characteristics required to be used as flame retardant filler for paint, in contrary to magnesium hydroxide, Mg(OH)2, which has undesired effect on the storage stability of paints based on alkyd resin. The values of LOI depend on the type and composition of the binder.

Research limitations/implications

The flame retardancy of the prepared paints could also be evaluated using more conventional methods such as oxygen index test.

Practical implications

Special fillers and binders that could be used in highly efficient flame retardant paint for wood have been identified.

Originality/value

The fillers are non‐toxic. Different fillers obtained could be used in various thermosetting binders beside thermoplastic ones.

Details

Pigment & Resin Technology, vol. 36 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0369-9420

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Article
Publication date: 1 February 1978

Americus

Coatings science represents one of the best examples available of the importance of an interdisciplinary approach. The organic chemist must provide polymers, solvents, and…

Abstract

Coatings science represents one of the best examples available of the importance of an interdisciplinary approach. The organic chemist must provide polymers, solvents, and many of the additives used in paint formulation. The organic chemist also must provide some of the pigments. The inorganic chemist must also provide pigments and extenders. How these components come together to form a paint and how that paint may be successfully applied to a surface is the realm of the physical chemist. The metallurgist is very much involved in making receptive the metal surfaces onto which coatings are placed. The cellulose chemist similarly has a contribution to make where wooded substrates are involved. The physicist is involved in the colour considerations associated with coatings, and one would be remiss to omit from this list, which admittedly is not complete, the empiricist. Many of the observations on which paint technology is based have been made empirically and to this day are without complete scientific basis. It is for this reason if for no other that scientific studies in the paint industry are extremely important.

Details

Pigment & Resin Technology, vol. 7 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0369-9420

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Article
Publication date: 1 March 1979

J.K. Vinaik, S. Chandra and A.K. Vasishtha

Polycarbonate was incorporated in castor oil and nigerseed oil alkyds of various oil lengths. Compatibility of polycarbonate with these alkyds was investigated. It was…

Abstract

Polycarbonate was incorporated in castor oil and nigerseed oil alkyds of various oil lengths. Compatibility of polycarbonate with these alkyds was investigated. It was found that only a small amount (4 to 10%) of polycarbonate could successfully be blended with these alkyds. Film properties of these blends were examined and compared with those of amino alkyd blends, in order to determine the usefulness of the polycarbonate alkyd blends. It was observed that polycarbonate modified alkyds, even with a small amount of polycarbonate were superior in film properties as compared to amino modified alkyds, especially with respect to chemicals and physical properties.

Details

Pigment & Resin Technology, vol. 8 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0369-9420

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