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Since the beginning of the 20th century environmental health researchers have known about the association between toxicant exposure and disease. However, that knoweldge…
Since the beginning of the 20th century environmental health researchers have known about the association between toxicant exposure and disease. However, that knoweldge has not been well integrated into mainstream medicine. Shedding light on why is the focus of this chapter.
To shed light on this issue I analyze the 2011 American Academy of Pediatrics’ clinical practice guidelines for Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), focusing specifically on the omission of environmental health research pertaining to ADHD symptoms and exposures, such as lead and mercury.
I found that while environmental researchers have been documenting the link between lead and ADHD for over forty years, the American Academy of Pediatrics has completely omitted this research from its 2012 clinical practice guidelines. Moreover, I argue this omission can be traced to competitive pressures to protect medical jurisdiction, and a reductionist worldview that emphasizes treatment over prevention.
Originality/value of paper
This is the first attempt to analyze the way clinical practice guidelines help reinforce and perpetuate dominant medical perspectives. Moreover, to shed explanatory light, this chapter offers a synthetic explanation that combines materialist and ideological factors.
Beyond the specific case of ADHD, this chapter has implications for understanding how and why environmental health research is omitted from other materials produced by mainstream medicine, such as materials found in the medical school curriculum, continuing medical education, medical journals, and on the medical association web sites.
Throughout human history and around the world, co-sleeping was the context for human evolutionary development. Currently, most of the world’s peoples continue to practice…
Throughout human history and around the world, co-sleeping was the context for human evolutionary development. Currently, most of the world’s peoples continue to practice co-sleeping with infants, but there is increasing pressure on families in the West not to co-sleep. Research from anthropology, family studies, medicine, pediatrics, psychology, and public health is reviewed through the lens of a developmental theory to place co-sleeping within a developmental, theoretical context for understanding it. Viewing co-sleeping as a family choice and a normative, human developmental context changes how experts may provide advice and support to families choosing co-sleeping, especially in families making the transition to parenthood. During this transition, many decisions are made by parents “intuitively” (Ball, Hooker, & Kelly, 1999), making understanding the developmental consequences of some of those choices even more important. In Western culture, families are making “intuitive” decisions that research has shown to be beneficial, but families are not receiving complete messages about benefits and risks of co-sleeping. Co-sleeping can be an important choice for families as they make the life-changing transition to parenthood, if individualized messages about safe infant sleep practices (directed toward their individual family circumstances) are shared with them.
Using Andersen’s (1968) behavioral model of health services use as a guiding conceptual framework, this study examined how receipt of family-centered care relates to the…
Using Andersen’s (1968) behavioral model of health services use as a guiding conceptual framework, this study examined how receipt of family-centered care relates to the perceived family challenges for families of children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD).
Data from the 2009–2010 National Survey of Children with Special Health Care Needs (NS-CSHCN) were analyzed for 812 parents of children with ASD.
Multiple regression analyses provided substantive statistical evidence that a child’s race, the adequacy of a family’s insurance, and the stability of child’s health care needs significantly contributed to predicting his or her receipt of family-centered care. Further results suggested a relationship between receipt of family-centered care and the perception of challenge for these families; families receiving family-centered care perceive fewer challenges and feel less unmet need for child health services.
Family-centered professionals provide critical voices in the development of policies and programs geared toward improving the health outcomes of children with ASD and their families.
The belief that children have mental health needs different than those of adults is a relatively recent phenomenon. Systematic field studies of mental illness began in the…
The belief that children have mental health needs different than those of adults is a relatively recent phenomenon. Systematic field studies of mental illness began in the early 19th century (Anthony, Eaton, & Henderson, 1995), although awareness of these illnesses and the recognition of the need for treatment were well established by the 1600s (Grob, 1994). Field studies and census data from mental hospitals in the 1800s reveal few cases of mental illness identified among children under the age of 16. In the late 19th and early 20th centuries, the recognition that children have specific mental health needs arose as the result of the confluence of several factors. The Progressive Movement promoted child labor and mandatory public education laws that created legal separations between the role of children and adults (Abbott, 1908; Sutton, 1983). Hall (1905) helped popularize the idea that childhood and adolescence constituted distinct periods of development. Perhaps most pressing, however, was a perceived rise in juvenile delinquency and sexual promiscuity. To address these problems, separate courts were established for juvenile offenders to keep children out of institutions and to provide treatment and rehabilitation (Alper, 1941). Based on the work of Healy and Bronner (1916), researchers and policy makers began to think of juvenile crime as arising from “mental conflicts” in children. Institutions such as the Chicago Juvenile Psychopathic Institute and the Boston Psychopathic Hospital were established to care for these children (Horn, 1989).
Although incarceration may have life-long negative health effects, little is known about associations between child incarceration and subsequent adult health outcomes. The…
Although incarceration may have life-long negative health effects, little is known about associations between child incarceration and subsequent adult health outcomes. The paper aims to discuss this issue.
The authors analyzed data from 14,689 adult participants in the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health (Add Health) to compare adult health outcomes among those first incarcerated between 7 and 13 years of age (child incarceration); first incarcerated at>or=14 years of age; and never incarcerated.
Compared to the other two groups, those with a history of child incarceration were disproportionately black or Hispanic, male, and from lower socio-economic strata. Additionally, individuals incarcerated as children had worse adult health outcomes, including general health, functional limitations (climbing stairs), depressive symptoms, and suicidality, than those first incarcerated at older ages or never incarcerated.
Despite the limitations of the secondary database analysis, these findings suggest that incarcerated children are an especially medically vulnerable population.
Programs and policies that address these medically vulnerable children’s health needs through comprehensive health and social services in place of, during, and/or after incarceration are needed.
Meeting these unmet health and social service needs offers an important opportunity to achieve necessary health care and justice reform for children.
No prior studies have examined the longitudinal relationship between child incarceration and adult health outcomes.
This is the eleventh article on science, technology, and medicine (STM) databases in a continuing series of articles summarizing and commenting on new database products…
This is the eleventh article on science, technology, and medicine (STM) databases in a continuing series of articles summarizing and commenting on new database products. Two companion articles, one covering social sciences, humanities, news, and general (SSH) (Online & CDROM Review, vol. 22, no.3) and the other covering business and law (BSL) (Online & CDROM Review, vol. 22, no. 3) will appear in the next issue of this journal. These articles are based on the newly appearing database products in the Gale Directory of Databases. The Gale Directory of Databases (GDD) was created in January 1993 by merging Computer‐Readable Databases: A Directory and Data Sourcebook (CRD) together with the Directory of Online Databases (DOD) and the Directory of Portable Databases (DPD).
Legal standards that allow teens to make health care decisions, or any important decisions, must account for the contingency and variability of minors’ capacity…
Legal standards that allow teens to make health care decisions, or any important decisions, must account for the contingency and variability of minors’ capacity. Traditional law denied minors’ legal authority to make any decisions, giving all power to parents. This rule goes too far; the Supreme Court has held that minors have constitutionally protected autonomy-based rights, and modern views about adolescence are inconsistent with the rule. The question is how and where to draw lines.
Legal standards are based on minors’ evolving maturity, policy favoring decisions that follow medical advice, and policy supporting parental authority. This paper uses four hard cases to show how these considerations factor into legal rules.
Climate change is the greatest threat to global health today and it challenges professionals in many disciplines. Most American university programs lack courses covering…
Climate change is the greatest threat to global health today and it challenges professionals in many disciplines. Most American university programs lack courses covering the rising deaths and illnesses from climate change. Consequently, graduates in health and other disciplines are underprepared for providing services in a world affected by climate change. They also lack the training to communicate this transformative development effectively. Universities should fill this gap and this paper aims to provide guidance on approaches to teaching climate-related health effects (CRHE).
Three analyses guide university coursework on CRHE. First, consider what current practitioners observe about the challenges they face and capability of trainees. Second, identify gaps in accreditation standards for university programs regarding these competencies. Third, draw lessons from innovative courses at a major American university.
Leading associations of practitioners in healthcare services, public health, social work, urban planning, civil engineering, law and other professions call for training students on CRHE. In contrast, accreditation bodies for most university programs fail to specify such curricula and competencies. Four offerings at a major American public university in 2016-2017 developed knowledge of CRHE, skills to improve professional services, appreciation of professional responsibilities and communication competencies.
Building on recommendations for climate change and sustainability in higher education, this study focuses on health effects, finds gaps in many programs and accreditation standards within and outside health sciences and draws lessons from innovative offerings.