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Article
Publication date: 1 July 2005

Trevor Hartland and Heather Skinner

This paper examines industry responses in Australasia and Europe to the growing practice of ambush marketing, to establish whether the measures that have been put in place…

Abstract

This paper examines industry responses in Australasia and Europe to the growing practice of ambush marketing, to establish whether the measures that have been put in place to deter the practice have indeed prevented the 'ambush' effect, whereby audiences associate non-sponsoring organisations with particular sporting events. Although some of these measures may be more effective than others in blocking ambush attempts, they also come with potentially negative consequences for event sponsors.

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International Journal of Sports Marketing and Sponsorship, vol. 6 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1464-6668

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Article
Publication date: 12 September 2016

Gerd Nufer

The purpose of this paper is to comprehensively characterise the interdisciplinary phenomenon of ambush marketing in sports, structure its manifestations, illustrate the…

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3000

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to comprehensively characterise the interdisciplinary phenomenon of ambush marketing in sports, structure its manifestations, illustrate the consequences associated with ambush marketing and provide a critical evaluation from an objective perspective.

Design/methodology/approach

Various approaches to the definition of ambush marketing are presented and the objectives pursued with ambush marketing are identified. In this paper a new approach has been developed to structure the strategies and manifestations of ambush marketing.

Findings

It is a fine line between creative marketing and infringing on sponsorship rights. So the interdisciplinary phenomenon ambush marketing is discussed controversially. Ambush marketing is situated at the intersection of two opposing spheres of interest conducting a battle for shares of the marketing potential of a sports event. On one side there is the disparaging view of ambush marketing founded on legal and/or ethical considerations. On the other, the author has the respectful assessment of ambushers characterised by their innovative, creative marketing.

Practical implications

The analysis conducted in this paper leads to the conclusion that a general evaluation or condemnation of ambush marketing is not feasible. A four-field matrix emerges from the combination of a legal-statutory consideration on one hand and an ethical-moral assessment on the other.

Originality/value

The paper describes and structures ambush marketing in a novel form and discusses illustrating examples from major sporting events. Ambush marketing is evaluated from a neutral perspective by summarising the opportunities and threats of ambush marketing which leads to a nuanced contemplation of ambush marketing.

Details

Sport, Business and Management: An International Journal, vol. 6 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2042-678X

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Abstract

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International Journal of Sports Marketing and Sponsorship, vol. 1 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1464-6668

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Article
Publication date: 1 July 2005

Benoit Séguin, Mark Lyberger, Norm O'Reilly and Larry McCarthy

A large-sample survey of general public consumers in Canada, France and the United States during the 2000 Olympic Games supports previous research on ambush marketing

Abstract

A large-sample survey of general public consumers in Canada, France and the United States during the 2000 Olympic Games supports previous research on ambush marketing, provides evidence that purchase decisions are affected by ambush marketing reducing the value of sponsorship partnerships, and purports that the International Olympic Committee and its partners need to develop specific strategies to combat ambush marketing country by country

Details

International Journal of Sports Marketing and Sponsorship, vol. 6 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1464-6668

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Article
Publication date: 1 October 2015

Steve McKelvey and Neil Longley

The bid process for hosting mega global sporting events mandates the enactment of event-specificambush marketing legislation that provides extraordinary trademark law…

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1038

Abstract

The bid process for hosting mega global sporting events mandates the enactment of event-specific ambush marketing legislation that provides extraordinary trademark law protections for private sports organisations and their official sponsors. Such event-specific ambush marketing legislation, or ESAML, has come under increasing scrutiny by academics and practitioners who question, among other things, the need for such legislation. One of the major areas of concern has become the potential social cost of such legislation that includes restrictions on free speech and curbs on marketplace competition. We apply economic theory as a means to explain why governments have been so willing to enact such legislation.

Details

International Journal of Sports Marketing and Sponsorship, vol. 16 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1464-6668

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Article
Publication date: 27 October 2020

Muhammed Bilgehan Aytaç

This study explores why consumers view ambush marketing as an ethical marketing approach.

Abstract

Purpose

This study explores why consumers view ambush marketing as an ethical marketing approach.

Design/methodology/approach

A qualitative study was devised to investigate what ambush marketing means to those consumers who find it ethical or are not annoyed by it. Data were collected via focus groups.

Findings

Three main themes emerged from the data analyses. The most dominant theme was Machiavellianism. Favorable evaluations of ambush marketing lean on a Machiavellistic understanding. The second was the Robin Hood effect, which is observed when the ambusher is a smaller or local brand. In the third theme, ambush attacks are considered as charismatic or enjoyable action, in what is termed dark charisma.

Practical implications

Findings of the current study suggest considerable implications both for businesses that deal with sponsorship and for organizing committees.

Originality/value

The extant literature on consumers' attitudes toward ambush marketing mostly focuses on ethical issues and/or the effectiveness of ambush marketing (i.e. harm to official sponsors), using qualitative techniques. However, the literature is devoid of studies exploring consumers' perception on ambush marketing, and more specifically, explanations of what is ethical and unethical from consumers' point of view. To best of the author's knowledge, it is the first study that seeks an explanation about consumers' positive evaluation of ambush marketing.

Details

Marketing Intelligence & Planning, vol. 39 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0263-4503

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Article
Publication date: 2 September 2020

Nicholas Burton and Cole McClean

This study explores the use of event-related promotional hashtags by non-sponsors as a form of social ambushing, akin to newsjacking, as potential means of ambushing major…

Abstract

Purpose

This study explores the use of event-related promotional hashtags by non-sponsors as a form of social ambushing, akin to newsjacking, as potential means of ambushing major events and the potential challenges facing commercial rights holders.

Design/methodology/approach

Framed within the context of the 2018 PyeongChang Winter Olympic Games, the present research takes a descriptive analytical approach to social media analysis. Social media data were accessed from Twitter's API across a six-week Games period and subsequently coded and categorized based upon strategic intent, content and key structural characteristics. A quantitative analysis of Tweet distribution, frequency and buzz was then conducted, providing insight into the impacts and effects of social ambushing via newsjacking.

Findings

Importantly, the study's findings suggest that whilst newsjacking by non-sponsors throughout the Games was pervasive, the potential reach and impact of such social ambushing may be limited. Non-sponsoring firms primarily adopted Games hashtags for behavioural or diversionary means, however consumer response to such attempts was minimal. These findings offer renewed perspective for scholars and practitioners on social ambushing and ambush marketing interventionism.

Originality/value

This research provides an important investigation into the manifestations and potential implications of social ambushing and illustrates the potential for brands to newsjack sporting events through unauthorized hashtag usage, necessary advances in sport marketing research.

Details

Sport, Business and Management: An International Journal, vol. 11 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2042-678X

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Article
Publication date: 20 May 2019

Nicholas Burton and Cheri Bradish

The purpose of this paper is to explore the development of preventative counter-ambush marketing initiatives and rights protection strategies, providing an historical view…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to explore the development of preventative counter-ambush marketing initiatives and rights protection strategies, providing an historical view of rights management and the International Olympic Committee’s sponsorship protection initiatives through ambush marketing’s formative years.

Design/methodology/approach

In examining the antecedents and implications of the Canadian Olympic Committee’s (COC) forward-thinking approach to ambush marketing protection, and to explore the development of preventative counter-ambush initiatives, an historical examination of IOC and COC policies and protocols regarding ambushing and sponsorship protection over a 30-year period was undertaken, informing the development of a proposed model of proactive commercial rights management.

Findings

The findings indicate that a progressive shift in the counter-ambush activities of major commercial rights holders may be underway: increasingly, the COC has stressed education and communication as key components of their commercial rights protection strategy, in lieu of enforcing the legal protection provided them by the Olympic and Paralympic Marks Act of 2007. The resultant commercial rights management model proposed reflects this proactive approach, and illustrates the need for events and sponsorship stakeholders to Anticipate, (Re)Act and Advocate.

Originality/value

The study offers a contemporary perspective into counter-ambush strategies within the context of the COC’s brand protection measures and industry practice. The proactive approach to commercial rights management explored represents a significant step in ambush marketing prevention on the part of the COC.

Details

Sport, Business and Management: An International Journal, vol. 9 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2042-678X

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Article
Publication date: 1 April 2014

Nicolas Chanavat and Michel Desbordes

This study investigates the regulation and restriction of ambush marketing during the London 2012 Olympic Games, with analysis of actions taken via social networks and…

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1456

Abstract

This study investigates the regulation and restriction of ambush marketing during the London 2012 Olympic Games, with analysis of actions taken via social networks and digital marketing related to the mega sports event. Results show that, where this issue was concerned, the London Organising Committee of the Olympic and Paralympic Games (LOCOG) was the most restrictive OCOG in history. However, there are neither specific legal tools nor international agreements to prohibit ambush marketing and protect official sponsorships. This paper looks at the proliferation of ambush cases during the London 2012 Olympics and underlines the widespread growth of this practice, despite reinforcement of existing laws. Findings show that brands were very imaginative at the expense of official sponsors and that social networks can be powerful publicity channels.

Details

International Journal of Sports Marketing and Sponsorship, vol. 15 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1464-6668

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Article
Publication date: 1 July 2009

Adam Portlock and Susan Rose

This paper examines ambush marketing activities and their effects upon UK football-oriented consumers. It questions previous definitions of ambush marketing and proposes…

Abstract

This paper examines ambush marketing activities and their effects upon UK football-oriented consumers. It questions previous definitions of ambush marketing and proposes one more relevant for today. The research focuses upon the identification of 'event-connected brand recognition' achieved by sponsor versus ambush brands and the role of 'event involvement' as a driver of this. The research employs a pre- and post-event design that aims to track consumer recognition of predesignated brands. Results give initial indications that consumers can discern differences between the two forms of activity and that high event involvement increases recognition. This paper contributes towards the debate about a change in the definition of ambush marketing against the backdrop of increasing media saturation surrounding major sporting events, and suggests that a more relevant descriptor would be 'parallel event marketing'.

Details

International Journal of Sports Marketing and Sponsorship, vol. 10 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1464-6668

Keywords

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