Several studies have related diagnostic information and adversity in childhood to criminal careers and risk of recidivism. Notably, ADHD and conduct disorder in childhood…
Several studies have related diagnostic information and adversity in childhood to criminal careers and risk of recidivism. Notably, ADHD and conduct disorder in childhood, schizophrenia, sexual abuse and physical abuse have been associated with offences in adulthood. This study investigates these variables in relation to large cohorts of offenders with learning disabilities. A case note review was undertaken for 126 individuals referred but not accepted into forensic learning disability services and 197 individuals accepted for such services. Results are reported on diagnostic information and experience of adversity in childhood. ADHD/conduct disorder featured prominently in both groups. Autistic spectrum disorders were not particularly over‐represented. For adversity in childhood, general socioeconomic deprivation featured prominently in both groups. This also increased significantly for those accepted into services. Sexual abuse and non‐accidental injury were featured at around 13‐20% for both groups. These results are broadly consistent with the mainstream literature on offending, ADHD/conduct disorder and general deprivation featuring significantly in all groups and rising for those accepted into offender services. It is important to deal with these aspects during assessment and to provide appropriate psychotherapeutic services for these individuals.
This paper seeks to describe the introduction of a component designed to enhance empathy, to an established cognitive behavioural treatment program for sexual offenders…
This paper seeks to describe the introduction of a component designed to enhance empathy, to an established cognitive behavioural treatment program for sexual offenders with an intellectual disability.
The treatment group received an empathy component and was compared with a control group. Therapeutic efficacy was assessed pre‐ and post‐treatment and at follow‐up using the interpersonal reactivity index which assesses fantasy; perspective taking; empathic concern and personal distress experienced due to others' misfortune.
There were no significant differences between treatment and control groups at baseline. For the treatment group, significant differences were identified between pre, post and three‐month follow‐up assessments indicating an increased empathy at post‐treatment assessment, the treatment group had significantly improved over the controls.
Future research could compare empathy measures and investigate specifically the relationship between what is taught in empathy programs and what is measured by empathy assessments. Difficulties with the study are discussed.
The empathy component appears to enhance empathic responses.
This paper aims to uncover links, overlaps and influence flows across two seemingly unrelated historical processes – the broadening of the marketing concept and the rapid…
This paper aims to uncover links, overlaps and influence flows across two seemingly unrelated historical processes – the broadening of the marketing concept and the rapid rise of neoliberal ideology, and associated economic and social policies.
Historical examination of the pivotal points in marketing thought, especially since 1960s and 1970s, is juxtaposed with the historical rise of neoliberalism to uncover linkages between marketing and neoliberalism, with a particular reference to Foucault’s analysis of the neoliberal transgression of classical liberalism.
While noble intentions were behind the broadening of the concept of marketing, the implicit assumptions reinforced neoliberal ideology and policies that led to rapid rise in inequality and to disastrous financial and economic crises.
This study, relying on extensive interdisciplinary theorizing, could benefit from empirical and practical extensions.
Globally pervasive marketing practices – based on the broadening of the marketing concept – have become imbricated in contemporary spiraling crises. To escape such spirals, radical rethinking of marketing theories and practices is required.
To reorient away from serving only the interests of centralized capital and to serve the needs of people the world over, marketing thought and practice need to reorient to innovative ideas that transcend the broadened and generic marketing concepts.
The paper develops the linkages between marketing theory and practices since the late 1960s and the neoliberal ideology politics and policies, with roots in the 1920s, that rose to prominence in the 1970s. A key contribution is an exploration of, in a marketing context, Foucault’s analysis of the neoliberal eclipsing of classical liberalism.
Community profiling several recent research studies (eg see NLW, June) have emphasised the need for more effective marketing of library and information services. A new CRUS publication is intended to help librarians set about the task of gathering the necessary information to do this properly. Community profiling in the library context aims to define a community in a way which is relevant to the planning and evaluation of library services, but different types of community require different approaches. Christina Beal has now written a comprehensive report covering the different methods possible. Community profiling for librarians (CRUS Occasional Paper 12) costs £17.50 from Consultancy and Research Unit, Department of Information Studies, University of Sheffield, Sheffield S10 2TN (Tel: 0742‐738608).
This study, conducted in 1997, aimed to explore in depth the views and experiences of women with breast cancer concerning diseaserelated mass media information. Three…
This study, conducted in 1997, aimed to explore in depth the views and experiences of women with breast cancer concerning diseaserelated mass media information. Three age‐stratified, unstructured focus group discussions were convened with thirty women with breast cancer (n = 11, 12 and 7). The discussions were audiotaped and transcribed in full and the transcripts were analysed using theme analysis. A number of themes concerning mass media breast cancer information were identified. Women sought and paid attention to information from a variety of mass media sources, including medical books and journals, leaflets, videotapes, women’s magazines, newspapers and television programmes. Mass media information was thought to possess a number of advantages. In particular, participants viewed mass media sources such as magazines and television as helpful in raising breast cancer awareness in the general population. Mass media information, however, was also viewed as having a number of disadvantages. For example, once diagnosed, participants thought that mass media sources such as magazines were frightening and depressing owing to their often negative and sensationalised nature. This finding was particularly worrying as women with breast cancer looked for and were often ‘drawn’ to such communication vehicles. To conclude, mass media information has advantages and disadvantages and its impact upon individuals may depend on their disease status. It is important that editors of mass media sources such as women’s magazines are aware of this dichotomy and are prepared to provide accurate, factual and less dramatised breast cancer information.