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In this study we examine the oversight responsibilities of audit committees in the post Sarbanes‐Oxley Act of 2002 (SOX) era. The results show that audit committee…
In this study we examine the oversight responsibilities of audit committees in the post Sarbanes‐Oxley Act of 2002 (SOX) era. The results show that audit committee oversight responsibilities assigned and disclosed in proxy statements expanded post‐SOX compared to pre‐SOX. We design a survey instrument to measure the difference between the perceived oversight responsibilities of audit committee members and the oversight responsibilities actually assigned in the proxy. Our results indicate that although audit committees made a substantial commitment to increase their assigned responsibilities over the period of 2001 to 2004, they still need to do more to meet the many additional challenges facing them in a post‐SOX environment. Overall, our results suggest that the intent of SOX‐for audit committees to be more involved and active in the oversight role of an organization‐is becoming institutionalized. These results should be interesting to policy makers, a variety of interest groups, and accounting researchers.
Decision-making rationality is said to be bounded by managers’ cognitive capabilities. Recent studies indicate that accounting functions evolved to augment the cognitively…
Decision-making rationality is said to be bounded by managers’ cognitive capabilities. Recent studies indicate that accounting functions evolved to augment the cognitively bounded human brain in handling complex economic exchanges. The neuroscience discipline suggests that human brains have the ability to implement “automatic” processes of positive versus negative emotional stimuli to make rational decisions. Neuroscientific evidence shows that the activations in the ventral striatum decrease with negative emotional information/motives and increase with positive emotional information/motives. The authors, hence, argue that our understanding of the decision-making rationality in financial and managerial decisions could be enhanced by using a functional neuroimaging approach.
Decision-making rationality has been focal in debt covenant violation and earnings management research. The contracting theory predicts a relationship between managers’ decisions and the proximity of violating debt covenants. However, no prior research has investigated brain activities associated with the evaluation of debt covenant violation and earnings management. Meanwhile, in another strand of research, there is an extensive prior literature concerning the consequences of managers’ decisions and the use of accounting information in relation to their evaluative style, i.e., supervisory style. The authors argue that the relationship between the proximity to debt covenants violation and earnings management incentives is contingent upon managers’ supervisory style. However, no previous research has examined the impact of the supervisory style on earnings management in the context of the proximity to debt covenants violation and other earnings management incentives.
In this research note, we argue that neuroaccounting could be relied on to examine the relationship between the proximity to debt covenants and earnings management, contingent upon managers’ supervisory style, by capturing brain activities. The adoption of the neuroscience functional neuroimaging approach in this field should contribute to the understanding of managers’ behaviors and provide implications for research and practitioners. The goal of this research note is to provide a new avenue for future research in this field.
We examine the earnings management implications of using nonfinancial performance measures (NFPM) in executive compensation contracts. We argue and test that when a…
We examine the earnings management implications of using nonfinancial performance measures (NFPM) in executive compensation contracts. We argue and test that when a manager's compensation is based on financial and NFPM, he/she has less incentive to manipulate earnings to maximize compensation. Using panel data covering the period 1992–2005, we compare earnings management behavior for a sample of firms that used both financial and nonfinancial measures to a matched sample of firms that based their performance measurement solely on financial measures. The results are mainly consistent with a reduction in earnings management behavior for those firms that rely on NFPM in their compensation contracts.
The purpose of this paper is to examine the relative and incremental information content of a cash recovery‐based measure of performance, the estimated internal rate of…
The purpose of this paper is to examine the relative and incremental information content of a cash recovery‐based measure of performance, the estimated internal rate of return, vs an earnings‐based measure of performance, return on assets, in explaining firms' economic performance.
The paper uses the cash recovery rate that is based on continuous time analysis and U‐shaped cash flows to derive the estimated internal rate of return and compare it to return on assets. A cross‐sectional sample was used over a short interval (year 1993 and year 2005) and a time‐series sample (1993‐2005) to empirically examine the relative and incremental information content of the competing measures. Tobin's q and stock returns are used as performance benchmarks.
The results of the empirical tests indicate that the estimated internal rate of return provides better relative and incremental information content over earnings‐based measures of performance. Specifically, the empirical evidence shows that the estimated internal rate of return is consistently positively related to Tobin's q and stock returns over all measurement intervals.
These results imply that earnings‐based performance measures are less value relevant compared to cash recovery‐based measures. There are some limitations that may apply to this study. First, the systematic measurement error in estimating the cash recovery rate may not be independent of the measurement error in the estimated internal rate of return. Second, the performance benchmarks used in the study are not free from problems. Particularly, the return on assets is influenced by firms' rate of growth and the Tobin's q is not a perfect measure of business performance. Therefore, one avenue of future research is to assess the usefulness of financial accounting data for analysts forecast. Moreover, future research may also examine the role of institutional changes in financial reporting and its effect on the quality of earnings and economic performance.
This paper presents extended research on cash recovery‐based vs earnings‐based metrics as proxies for economic return using improved research designs, larger samples and new sensitivity analyses.
The purpose of this paper is to present an efficient and scalable Arabic semantic search engine based on a domain-specific ontological graph for Colleges of Applied…
The purpose of this paper is to present an efficient and scalable Arabic semantic search engine based on a domain-specific ontological graph for Colleges of Applied Science, Sultanate of Oman (CASOnto). It also supports the factorial question answering and uses two types of searching: the keyword-based search and the semantics-based search in both languages Arabic and English. This engine is built on variety of technologies such as resource description framework data and ontological graph. Furthermore, two experimental results are conducted; the first is a comparison among entity-search and the classical-search in the system itself. The second compares the CASOnto with well-known semantic search engines such as Kngine, Wolfram Alpha and Google to measure their performance and efficiency.
The design and implementation of the system comprises the following phases, namely, designing inference, storing, indexing, searching, query processing and the user’s friendly interface, where it is designed based on a specific domain of the IBRI CAS (College of Applied Science) to highlight the academic and nonacademic departments. Furthermore, it is ontological inferred data stored in the tuple data base (TDB) and MySQL to handle the keyword-based search as well as entity-based search. The indexing and searching processes are built based on the Lucene for the keyword search, while TDB is used for the entity search. Query processing is a very important component in the search engines that helps to improve the user’s search results and make the system efficient and scalable. CASOnto handles the Arabic issues such as spelling correction, query completion, stop words’ removal and diacritics removal. It also supports the analysis of the factorial question answering.
In this paper, an efficient and scalable Arabic semantic search engine is proposed. The results show that the semantic search that built on the SPARQL is better than the classical search in both simple and complex queries. Clearly, the accuracy of semantic search equals to 100 per cent in both types of queries. On the other hand, the comparison of CASOnto with the Wolfram Alpha, Kngine and Google refers to better results by CASOnto. Consequently, it seems that our proposed engine retrieved better and efficient results than other engines. Thus, it is built according to the ontological domain-specific, highly scalable performance and handles the complex queries well by understanding the context behind the query.
The proposed engine is built on a specific domain (CAS Ibri – Oman), and in the future vision, it will highlight the nonfactorial question answering and expand the domain of CASOnto to involve more integrated different domains.
The main contribution of this paper is to build an efficient and scalable Arabic semantic search engine. Because of the widespread use of search engines, a new dimension of challenge is created to keep up with the evolution of the semantic Web. Whereas, catering to the needs of users has become a matter of paramount importance in the light of artificial intelligence and technological development to access the accurate and the efficient information in less possible time. However, the research challenges still in its infancy due to lack of research engine that supports the Arabic language. It could be traced back to the complexity of the Arabic language morphological and grammar rules.
THE last‐but‐one session at the national conference was valuable. In form, it took the shape of a symposium, launched by Royston Brown, continued by Max Broome and supported by various walk‐on characters of high standing in librarianship, all discussing the report of the library Advisory Council (England) entitled Future development of libraries: the organisational and policy framework. (DES, 1979).