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Book part
Publication date: 14 July 2014

Bill McEvily

I evaluate the accuracy with which respondents report egocentered network data. I find that 72% of the time ego’s assessment of the tie between a pair of alters

Abstract

I evaluate the accuracy with which respondents report egocentered network data. I find that 72% of the time ego’s assessment of the tie between a pair of alters corresponded with both alters’ report of the tie between themselves, and 87% of the time, ego’s report of the tie between a pair of alters is in agreement with at least one of the alters. I discuss the implications of the findings for the debate over the merits of egocentered network data.

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Contemporary Perspectives on Organizational Social Networks
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78350-751-1

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Article
Publication date: 8 February 2016

Jingsen Zhang, Jing Zhang and Yanchao Zhai

This paper aims to elucidate the geochemical characteristics of the hydrothermally altered rocks with gold mineralization and the elemental transfers in hydrothermal…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to elucidate the geochemical characteristics of the hydrothermally altered rocks with gold mineralization and the elemental transfers in hydrothermal alteration hosted in alkaline complex in Hongshan area, Taihang Orogen, North China, and preliminarily discuss the relationship between the gold mineralization and the hydrothermal alteration.

Design/methodology/approach

Based on detailed field investigation, sampling and petrographical observation, major oxides and trace elements of nine rock samples are analyzed, and the method of mass balance equation is used in calculation of the elemental transfer.

Findings

Three alteration stages in the Hongshan area are identified, which are the early, main and late alterations. The early one is characteristic of extensive pyritization in the complex, which is related to the mantle-derived magmas and occurs before gold mineralization. The main one is characterized by developing a great deal of altered rock in fracture zones with the gain of many elements and the loss of a few elements. The late one is dominated by limonitization, that is limonite replacing the early pyrite or Fe2O3 replacing FeO in rocks. In the main alteration, the altered rocks obviously gain fluid component (LOI, i.e. loss on ignition) and elements such as V, As, Rb, Au, La, Ce and Nd and total rare earth elements (REEs). Elements such as K, Fe, Cu, Zn, Y, Mo, Sb, W, Re and U are gained in some altered rocks. Na and Sr are lost in all altered rocks, and Th and Bi are lost in some ones in the meantime. The following elements: Si, Mg, Mn, Ca, Li, Sc, Cr, Co, Ni, Zr, Ag, Ba and Hg show either gain or loss in different altered rocks. Au is notably enriched in the hydrothermal alteration. The elemental gain or loss in the altered rocks indicates that the main mineralization develops extensive de-alkalinization, local potassic metasomatism, silicification or desilicification.

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World Journal of Engineering, vol. 13 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1708-5284

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Article
Publication date: 19 July 2011

Kim Klyver

By adding an alter perspective to the traditional ego perspective on gender differences in entrepreneurial networks, the purpose of this study is to investigate whether…

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Abstract

Purpose

By adding an alter perspective to the traditional ego perspective on gender differences in entrepreneurial networks, the purpose of this study is to investigate whether involvement of family members who are not partners and exchange of emotional support is associated not only with the gender of the entrepreneurs but also the gender of entrepreneurs' alters.

Design/methodology/approach

Building on homophily theory, relational theory and social support theory, three hypotheses are developed and tested on a representative sample of Danish entrepreneurs and their alters. A hierarchical logistic regression approach is applied.

Findings

It is found that female focal entrepreneurs are more likely to involve female and family members who are not partners. Furthermore, it was found that female focal entrepreneurs would more likely involve female family members while male focal entrepreneurs would more likely involve male family members. And finally, it was found that females and males are equally likely to receive emotional support while females are more likely to provide it.

Research limitations/implications

An important lesson from this study is that both focal actors and alters have an essential role in the entrepreneurial act and that females and males perform different roles and functions as both the focal entrepreneurs and as alters.

Originality/value

This study is unique in the sense that it adds an alter perspective to the traditional ego perspective on entrepreneurial networks.

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Gender in Management: An International Journal, vol. 26 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1754-2413

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Book part
Publication date: 10 April 2017

Gerald Mollenhorst, Christofer Edling and Jens Rydgren

In this chapter, we focus on the social integration of young immigrants in Sweden who themselves and/or one or both of their parents came from Iran or former Yugoslavia…

Abstract

In this chapter, we focus on the social integration of young immigrants in Sweden who themselves and/or one or both of their parents came from Iran or former Yugoslavia. In particular, we look at the share of alters in their core networks who are of the same parental national origin and how this has changed within a period of four years. To explain network changes, we consider the parental national origin similarity among them, changes in opportunities to meet network members, and important life events.

We analyzed two waves of survey data collected in 2010 and 2014 from 1,537 individuals who live in Sweden and who were all born in 1990, including 325 immigrants from Iran, 447 immigrants from former Yugoslavia, and 805 native Swedes. The results indicate that: (a) the share of parental national origin similar alters in the core networks of immigrants significantly increases over time, (b) first-generation immigrants in particular increasingly associate with others who are of the same parental national origin, (c) important life events hardly result in network changes, and (d) schools and work places are social contexts that enhance the social integration of immigrants, because in these contexts immigrants meet and engage in personal relationships with individuals who do not share their parental national origin.

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Book part
Publication date: 14 July 2014

David Obstfeld, Stephen P. Borgatti and Jason Davis

We argue for a broadened approach to brokerage by distinguishing between brokerage emphasizing a particular structural pattern in which two otherwise disconnected alters

Abstract

We argue for a broadened approach to brokerage by distinguishing between brokerage emphasizing a particular structural pattern in which two otherwise disconnected alters are connected through a third party (“brokerage structure”) and the social behavior of third parties (“brokerage process”). We explore a processual view of brokerage by examining three fundamental strategic orientations toward brokerage: conduit, tertius gaudens, and tertius iungens that occur in many different forms and combinations. This processual view is especially relevant in increasingly complex and dynamic environments where brokerage behavior is highly varied, intense, and purposeful, and has theoretical implications for studying multiplexity, heterogeneity, and brokerage intensity.

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Contemporary Perspectives on Organizational Social Networks
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78350-751-1

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Book part
Publication date: 1 December 2004

LuAnne R. Johnson and David Knoke

We construct a theory of team collaboration to explain how social actors activate their network ties to gain access to and acquire the use of social capital held by other…

Abstract

We construct a theory of team collaboration to explain how social actors activate their network ties to gain access to and acquire the use of social capital held by other network actors. Drawing from weak-strong tie theory and closure-brokerage models of network structures, our theory specifies dynamic processes in which relations vary in their potential for activation, and thus, project teams have differential probabilities of mobilizing and gaining collective use of the varied resources held by their network alters inside and outside the team. The theoretical scope is interorganizational team whose members are employed by two partnering organizations and are assigned to a joint project with a single task or goal to be accomplished within a limited period. We present and discuss a set of propositions about factors that affect the ability of a team to access its members’ social capital for use in a project task.

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Complex Collaboration: Building the Capabilities for Working Across Boundaries
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-84950-288-7

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Book part
Publication date: 1 April 2003

Rafael Wittek, Marijtje A.J van Duijn and Tom A.B Snijders

In a study of conflict in organizations, Lindenberg’s relational signaling theory is used to develop hypotheses on the impact of relationship strength, network…

Abstract

In a study of conflict in organizations, Lindenberg’s relational signaling theory is used to develop hypotheses on the impact of relationship strength, network embeddedness, and organizational change on social escalation. Social escalation is defined as the involvement of one or more third parties in a conflict. An empirical test is conducted with data on 67 conflicts involving 22 managers, gathered during three years of ethnographic fieldwork and a longitudinal network study in a management team of a German paper factory. Multilevel analysis indicates that strong ties between conflicting parties decrease the level of social escalation, whereas informal power advantage of one party increases the chances for social escalation. Both effects disappear over time. It is argued that the dissolving impact of relationships and networks is due to the disappearance of so-called solidarity frame-stabilizing activities in the firm. The results highlight the context-dependence of network effects and escalation processes.

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The Governance of Relations in Markets and Organizations
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-84950-202-3

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Article
Publication date: 6 September 2021

Yan Qu, Adam J. Saffer and Daniel Riffe

Consumer engagement has become a critical component to many brands' relationship and promotional efforts. Empirical studies have documented the psychological elements that…

Abstract

Purpose

Consumer engagement has become a critical component to many brands' relationship and promotional efforts. Empirical studies have documented the psychological elements that can drive consumers to engage with brands. However, there is a knowledge gap regarding how consumer engagement is influenced by the social environment consumers are embedded in. Taking an egocentric network approach, this study explores the social network factors that affect different dimensions of consumers' online engagement behaviors with a brand.

Design/methodology/approach

An online survey with an egocentric network design was employed, and 263 completed responses were collected from college students in US. The dimensionality of consumer engagement was validated using exploratory factor analysis. The hypotheses were tested through three sets of hierarchical regression models.

Findings

The results suggest that consumer engagement with a brand was partially shaped by the attributes of consumers' brand discussion networks that emerge from their conversations about a brand with others in everyday life. Specifically, the size, heterogeneity, and density to consumers' discussion networks were associated with certain engagement behaviors.

Originality/value

This study introduces a novel type of network method known as egocentric network analysis to explore and investigate the social network antecedents to consumer engagement behavior. It advances the conception of consumer engagement as a dynamic process influencing and is influenced by consumers' social interactions rather than merely a product of their psychological mechanisms. The study contributes to a social network approach to examining and conceptualizing consumer engagement.

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Corporate Communications: An International Journal, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1356-3289

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Article
Publication date: 24 March 2011

Paul Sandford, Ed Cooper and Jim Shepherd

This is the first part of a two‐part paper that considers the assessment criteria for incapacity benefit (IB) and employment and support allowance (ESA) and how these…

Abstract

This is the first part of a two‐part paper that considers the assessment criteria for incapacity benefit (IB) and employment and support allowance (ESA) and how these benefits apply to claimants who are unable to work because they experience episodes of lost or altered consciousness.Part one considers how the IB/ESA appraisal system works in practice and looks specifically at the legal interpretation of lost and altered consciousness. Part two, which will be published in a future issue, will give practical guidance to advisers.

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Social Care and Neurodisability, vol. 2 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2042-0919

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Article
Publication date: 1 December 1959

W.J. Goodey

A PROBLEM arises in the matrix analysis of highly redundant structures, and no doubt often occurs in other engineering and scientific contexts, in which a set of linear…

Abstract

A PROBLEM arises in the matrix analysis of highly redundant structures, and no doubt often occurs in other engineering and scientific contexts, in which a set of linear simultaneous equations, which has already been solved for one particular set of values of the coefficients, has to be solved again when some of the coefficients are altered. In the structural context the problem is to find the effect of altering the sizes of some of the members of a structure. This alters the matrix of coefficients of the equations for the unknowns (the redundancies) in a rather special way, but in other problems the alterations in the matrix may be of a more general character. It was accordingly decided to investigate the general problem of matrix modification to sec if some method could be devised which did not involve the complete solution of the altered equations ab initio, but which made use of the work already done in solving the original equations. It seemed reasonable to suppose that the amount of work involved in finding the solution of the modified equations could be related to the number of altered coefficients, so that if only a few of the coefficients were altered the amount of additional work to obtain the new solution would be correspondingly small.

Details

Aircraft Engineering and Aerospace Technology, vol. 31 no. 12
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0002-2667

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