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Article
Publication date: 1 February 1996

Houssni El‐Saied, Snaa M. El‐Sawy and Altaf H. Basta

Reports on tests in which barium metaborate pigment and its modified form are prepared, identified by chemical and X‐ray diffraction methods, and specified according to…

Abstract

Reports on tests in which barium metaborate pigment and its modified form are prepared, identified by chemical and X‐ray diffraction methods, and specified according to standard methods. Evaluates the modified barium metaborate as a new filler for paper making by carrying out two series of experiments. Details the results which showed that the efficiency of the filler retention when using modified barium metaborate was higher than that of the other two conventional fillers. Reveals that at relatively low filler addition (2–5 percentage weight), higher improvement in the strength properties can be obtained when using the modified pigment instead of titanium dioxide and kaolin, but observes the reverse (i.e. a detrimental effect) at relatively high filler addition (8–10 percentage weight). Discovers that the optical properties of the modified pigment‐loaded sheets lie between those of titanium dioxide and kaolin. Shows that blending barium metaborate with kaolin or titanium dioxide has a significant effect on strength properties rather than optical properties. Concludes that modified barium metaborate pigment can be successfully used in paper filling applications and that modified barium metaborate pigment‐kaolin blend (80/20 per cent) can be used instead of titanium dioxide as a paper filler.

Details

Pigment & Resin Technology, vol. 25 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0369-9420

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Article
Publication date: 1 April 1996

Houssni El‐Saied, Altaf H. Basta, Samir Y. El‐Sayed and Fatma Morsy

The rheological properties of coating suspensions containing a blend of clay and CaCO3 as a pigment have been evaluated at 22°C, using a rheometer with shear rates from…

Abstract

The rheological properties of coating suspensions containing a blend of clay and CaCO3 as a pigment have been evaluated at 22°C, using a rheometer with shear rates from 0.5 to 100rpm. The state of dispersion of the pigment, the structure viscosity of the suspension as a result of pigment‐pigment or pigment‐binder interactions, and its behaviour by changing the solid content and ionic strength, were limited from the examination of the flow curves. The flow parameters for each suspension were calculated. The results showed that changes in solid content and ionic strength by the addition of divalent simple electrolyte (CaCl2) and pH level have a more profound effect on the flow parameters than that obtained by the addition of monovalent simple electrolyte (NaCl) or polyelectrolyte soluble polymers (CMC) with different degrees of substitution. The type of acid used to adjust the pH of the suspension also has a great influence on the flow parameters.

Details

Pigment & Resin Technology, vol. 25 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0369-9420

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Article
Publication date: 1 May 1996

Altaf H. Basta, Naim A. Fadl and Usama I. Gabra

Studies the treatment of wood‐processing waste using different impregnants as a tool for improving its water‐resistance properties, in order to achieve a reduction in the…

Abstract

Studies the treatment of wood‐processing waste using different impregnants as a tool for improving its water‐resistance properties, in order to achieve a reduction in the damage to building elements prepared from the treated wood waste when exposed to weather of relatively high moisture content. Applies different variables such as type of impregnant (synthetic resins or oils), concentration of impregnant, time of impregnation and thermal treatment. Obtains results which show that, generally, using a different concentration of synthetic resins (UF and novolac), or dry oils (motor oil and linseed oil) improved the water‐resistance property of wood waste, and that thermal treatment increases the improvement percentage as a result of impregnation. Also indicates that the optimum improvement in water resistance is attained when using 50 per cent linseed oil as the impregnant for an impregnation time of ten minutes, followed by hardening for three hours at 120°C.

Details

Pigment & Resin Technology, vol. 25 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0369-9420

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Article
Publication date: 22 September 2021

Altaf H. Basta, Vivian F. Lotfy and Aya M. Salem

This study aims to motivate the application of some low-cost minerals in synthesizing nanoparticles as effective additives on the performance of liquid crystal (LC…

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to motivate the application of some low-cost minerals in synthesizing nanoparticles as effective additives on the performance of liquid crystal (LC) hydroxypropyl cellulose (HPC) nanocomposite film, in comparison with carbon nanoallotrope.

Design/methodology/approach

Metallic nanoparticles of vanadium oxide, montmorillonite (MMT) and bentonite were synthesized and characterized by different techniques (Transmission electron microscopy [TEM], X-ray diffraction [XRD] and Fourier transform infrared [FTIR]). While the XRD, FTIR, non-isothermal analysis thermogravimetric analysis, mechanical analysis, scanning electron microscope and polarizing microscope were techniques used to evaluate the key role of metallic nanoparticles on the performance of HPC-nanocomposite film.

Findings

The formation of nanoparticles was evidenced from TEM. The XRD and FTIR measurements of nanocomposite films revealed that incorporating the mineral nanoparticles led to enhance the HPCs crystallinity from 14% to 45%, without chemical change of HPC structure. It is interesting to note that these minerals provide higher improvement in crystallinity than carbon nanomaterials (28%). Moreover, the MMT provided film with superior thermal stability and mechanical properties than pure HPC and HPC containing carbon nanoparticles, where it increased the Ea from 583.6 kJ/mol to 669.3 kJ/mol, tensile strength from 2.25 MPa to 2.8 MPa, Young’s modulus from 119 MPa to 124 MPa. As well as it had a synergistic effect on the LC formation and the birefringence texture of the nanocomposites (chiral nematic).

Research limitations/implications

Hydroxylpropyl cellulose-nanocomposite films were prepared by dissolving the HPC powder in water to prepare 50% concentration, (free or with incorporating 5% synthesized nanoparticles). To obtain films with uniform thickness, the prepared solutions were evenly spread on a glass plate via an applicator, by adjusting the thickness to 0.2 mm, then air dried.

Practical implications

These minerals provide higher improvement in crystallinity than carbon nanomaterials (28%), moreover, the MMT and bentonite provided films with superior thermal stability than pure HPC and HPC containing carbon nanoparticles. The mineral nanoparticles (especially MMT nanoclays) had a synergistic effect on LC formation and the birefringence texture of the nanocomposites (chiral nematic).

Social implications

This study presents the route to enhance the utilization of claystone available in El-Fayoum Province as the precursor for nanoparticles and production high performance LC nanocomposites.

Originality/value

This study presents the route for the valorization of low-cost mineral-based nanoparticles in enhancing the properties of HPC-film (crystallinity, thermal stability, mechanical strength), in comparison with carbon-based nanoparticles. Moreover, these nanoparticles provided more ordered mesophases and, consequently, good synergetic effect on LCs formation and the birefringence texture of the HPC-films.

Details

Pigment & Resin Technology, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0369-9420

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Article
Publication date: 3 May 2016

Altaf H. Basta, Houssni El-Saied and Emad M. Deffallah

The purpose of this paper is to examine the effects of denaturised rice bran (RB) and route of its incorporation during synthesis of urea-formaldehyde adhesive, on the…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine the effects of denaturised rice bran (RB) and route of its incorporation during synthesis of urea-formaldehyde adhesive, on the performance of the resulting adhesive, especially viscosity, free-formaldehyde (HCHO) and quality of the produced bagasse-based composites, in comparison with those produced from commercial urea formaldehyde (UF) and RB-added UF.

Design/methodology/approach

The experiments were carried out using different denaturised RB at different percentages (1-5 per cent) and pH’s (9-11 per cent). These denaturised RB were incorporated at the last synthesis stage of UF synthesis process. The assessment was carried out on both the viscosity and environmental safety of the adhesive system, as well as the quality of the manufactured bagasse-based composites, of the particleboards (static bending, internal bond (IB) strength and water resistance properties), in comparison to commercial UF and RB added to UF. The performance of the adhesive system was evidenced by the thermogravimetric analysis and differential scanning calorimetry analyses.

Findings

The results showed that maximum static bending [modulus of rupture (MOR) and modulus of elasticity (MOE)], IB strength and water resistance properties of the resulted wood product accompanied the incorporating 5 per cent of the denaturised RB (pH = 9.0), at the last synthesised stage of UF synthesis process. Where, this synthesis process provided adhesive with viscosity nearly approaching to commercial UF adhesive, and reduced the free-HCHO of adhesive and board by approximately 56 and 49 per cent, respectively. For mechanical and water resistance properties, it provided board with 24.5 MPa MOR, 3,029 MPa MOE, 0.64 MPa IB, 11 per cent swelling (SW) and 20.5 per cent absorption. These properties fulfil the requirements of high grade particleboards American National Standard Institute (ANSI) A208.1, especially with respect to static bending values and water swelling property.

Research limitations/implications

Incorporating 5 per cent of pre-denaturised RB, at pH 9.0, in wet form, and in the last stage of synthesis UF, provided adhesive system with convenient viscosity together with lower free-HCHO and acceptable board properties, compared with that produced from commercial UF, or adding denaturised RB to already synthesised UF. For the mechanical (MOR, MOE and IB) and water resistance properties (SW per cent and absorption per cent) of the produced composite are complied the standard values of H-3 grade of particleboard.

Practical implications

Promising adhesive system is resulted from incorporating 5 per cent of pre-denaturised RB at pH 9.0, in wet form, during last stage of UF synthesis process.

Social implications

Incorporating the RB by-product of oil production to commercial UF or during synthesis of UF will be benefit for saving the healthy of wood co-workers, and motivating the wood mill to export its wood products.

Originality/value

The article provides a potential simple way to solve the drawback of increasing the viscosity of UF, as a result of adding RB, via incorporating the RB during synthesis process. The viscosity of the synthesised RB-modified UF approaches RB-free UF, and consequently the adhesive system easily penetrates through agro-fibres, and provides good bonding behaviour and high performance wood product (both quality and environmental by minimising formaldehyde emission or toxic gasses during board formation).

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Article
Publication date: 4 January 2013

Altaf H. Basta, Houssni El‐Saied and Vivian F. Lotfy

The purpose of this paper is to study the possibility of preparing high performance, agro‐based composites from rice straw, using eco‐polyalcohol polymers‐based adhesive…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to study the possibility of preparing high performance, agro‐based composites from rice straw, using eco‐polyalcohol polymers‐based adhesive system. The utilization of rice straw (undesirable biowastes) for the production of high quality biocomposite products, will add economic value, help to reduce the environmental impact of waste disposal and, most importantly, provide a potentially inexpensive alternative to the existing commercial artificial wood‐panels.

Design/methodology/approach

Simple synthesizing and optimizing the polyalcohol polymers‐based non‐toxic adhesive system were carried out, by blending corn starch, as natural polyalcohol polymer with polyvinyl alcohol, as synthetic polyalcohol polymers‐based adhesive (St/PV adhesive), at temperature ∼75°C. The percentages of adhesive components, type of starch, bonding temperature and time were optimized. Assessment of the synthesized adhesive was performed from its adhesion behavior (bond strength), in comparison with commercial thermosetting resin (urea‐formaldehyde), as well as the properties (mechanical and physical properties) of the composites produced. The effects of amount and type of water resistance co‐additives (paraffin wax and polyester), on mechanical properties of RS‐based composite were also optimized.

Findings

The promising adhesive system exhibits improved performance over a previously commercially HCHO‐based adhesive (UF), and results bonding strength 9.8 N/mm2, as well as MOR, IB and TS of RS‐based composites up to 31 N/mm2, 0.49 N/mm2 and 20%, respectively.

Research limitations/implications

Through the studied eco‐adhesive with relatively high natural polyalcohol polymer (starch) in presence of water‐resistance additive (PE) provided a good bonding strength and comparative RS‐based composite properties, with that produced from commercial UF. For the mechanical properties (MOR and IB) are complied the standard values; while water resistance is still higher. Further study is needed to solve this problem.

Practical implications

The approach provided a HCHO‐free adhesive with good bonding strength, comparative board strength and water resistance, reasonable working life, and without formaldehyde emission. Starch‐based adhesive with low percentages of polyvinyl alcohol is considered a promising inexpensive alternate adhesive in wood industry based on rice straw wastes, which traditionally required expensive pMDI.

Originality/value

The paper provides a potential way to utilise undesirable rice by‐product (RS), corn starch as industrial raw material. This will benefit farmers significantly. Meanwhile, the modified starch adhesive with low percentage of PVA is promising to partly or completely replace urea formaldehyde resin and pMDI that are mainly used in wood industry, or pMDI in RS‐based artificial wood, avoiding formaldehyde emission or toxic gases during exposed to burning, and reducing the dependence on petroleum products.

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Article
Publication date: 1 July 2014

Altaf H. Basta, Houssni El-Saied and Emad M. Deffallah

The purpose of this paper is to prepare high-performance agro-based composites from the non-toxic rice bran-urea-formaldehyde (RB-UF) adhesive system. Investigations have…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to prepare high-performance agro-based composites from the non-toxic rice bran-urea-formaldehyde (RB-UF) adhesive system. Investigations have continued for production high performance agro-based composites using environmentally acceptable approaches. The utilisation of such system with the available used local agro-based wood products (sugar-cane bagasse, SCB) adds economic value and helps reducing the environmental impact of commercial urea-formaldehyde (UF) adhesive, and most importantly, provides a potentially inexpensive alternative to the existing commercial artificial wood-panel mills.

Design/methodology/approach

Optimising the process for incorporating the RB in UF, as wood adhesive for binding the bagasse fibres, was carried out, by partially replacing commercial UF by denaturalised RB in slurry (wet) and dry form or through synthesis of UF. The denaturalisation of RB was carried out at different pHs (10-11) and at temperature 60°C for two hours. While incorporating the RB during synthesis of UF, it was carried out according to the method reported elsewhere. The formulation of adhesive components, pH value of the denaturalisation stage and the process of incorporating the RB were optimised. Assessment of the role of RB adhesive was specified from its free-formaldehyde (HCHO) content, as well as the properties (mechanical and physical properties) of the produced composites of bagasse particle board type, in comparison with the environmental impact of commercial thermosetting resin (UF).

Findings

The promising adhesive system exhibits improvement in the environmental performance (as E1 type) over a commercially UF adhesive (as E2 type), besides providing boards fulfill the requirements of grade H-3 (according to ANSI A208.1 (NPA1993). This adhesive system was resulted from replacing 30 per cent of UF by denalturalised RB (at pH 10) in slurry form. Where, its reduction in free-HCHO reached 53 per cent, as well as modulus of rupture (MOR), modulus of elasticity (MOE), internal bond (IB) and TS of the produced boards were approximately 24.2 N/mm2, approximately 3753 N/mm2, approximately 0.84 N/mm2 and approximately 11.4 per cent, respectively.

Research limitations/implications

The eco-adhesive with relatively high percentage of low-cost commercial UF (70 per cent) and 30 per cent RB, as oil production by-product, in slurry form provides good board strength and is environmentally friendly compared to SCB-based composite properties, with that produced from commercial UF. The mechanical (MOR, MOE and IB) and water-resistance properties of the produced composite comply with the standard values.

Practical implications

The approach provided low HCHO-free UF adhesive with good comparative board strength and water resistance and reasonable working life. Replacing 30 per cent of UF by RB in slurry form and denaturalised at pH 10 is considered a promising inexpensive alternate adhesive (as E1) in the wood industry based on SCB wastes.

Social implications

Incorporating the RB by-product of oil production to commercial UF will be beneficial for saving the health of wood co-workers and motivating the wood mill to export its wood products.

Originality/value

It provided a potentially simple way to improve both the utilisation of commercial UF and SCB as industrial substrates for particle-board production. This will benefit farmers, local wood mills in Upper Egypt, significantly. Meanwhile, incorporating low percentage of RB, as oil-mill by-products, is promising to partly replace UF resin in the wood industry, minimising formaldehyde emission or toxic gasses during board formation.

Details

Pigment & Resin Technology, vol. 43 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0369-9420

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Article
Publication date: 6 March 2017

Altaf Halim Basta, Houssni El-Saied, Amin Mahmoud Baraka and Vivian Fayez Lotfy

The purpose of this research paper focused on studying the role of activated carbons (ACs), which were synthesized from long-chain aldehyde-based xerogels (Xs-AC), as…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this research paper focused on studying the role of activated carbons (ACs), which were synthesized from long-chain aldehyde-based xerogels (Xs-AC), as benefit additives to enhance the application of a low-cost urea formaldehyde (UF) adhesive for production of rice straw (RS) composites complying with both the standard specifications of particle-board type and the board produced from using conventional adhesive of RS fibers (methylene diphenyl diisocyanate, MDI). The results are supported by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) analysis, which indicated the curing and interaction of RS fibers with the adhesive systems.

Design/methodology/approach

RS-based composites of particle-board type were prepared from applying new Xs-AC–UF adhesive systems to RS particles. For comparison, particle boards by using commercial UF and 4 per cent MDI were also prepared. To clear the beneficial effect of X-ACs as new HCHO (formaldehyde)-scavengers, the properties of the resulted boards were compared with those produced from the previous investigated scavenger: amide-containing starch-UF (AM/St–UF), and treated RS. DSC analysis was performed on the RS adhesive system, to follow the curing and the interaction behavior of UF with fibers in the presence of Xs-ACs.

Findings

The promising results obtained of RS particle boards from using the investigated new HCHO-scavenger are modulus of rupture (MOR) = 17.2 MPa, modulus of elasticity (MOE) = 4,689 MPa and internal bond (IB) strength = 0.49 MPa. While, the thickness swelling (TS) and maximum reduction in free-HCHO are 48.5 and 44.6 per cent, respectively; this reduction value specified the particle-board of E1-E2 type.

Research limitations/implications

The X-AC-UF adhesive systems and treated RS provided particle boards with mechanical properties (MOR, MOE and IB) that met the standard specification values (class M-2 according to ANSI standard and P-2 according to EN standard requirements), together with maximum reduction in toxicity of UF. However, the resistance in water swelling property is weak and needs further study to be solved.

Practical implications

The incorporation of small percentage of new HCHO-scavenger (X-AC) to UF is an effective way to improve its thermal behavior. Moreover, the mechanical properties of agro-based composites based on the treated RS waste together with the X-AC-UF system exceeded those values of panels produced from (AM/St-UF) and also from (4 per cent MDI).

Social implications

Incorporating the Xs-AC to commercial UF will be of benefit for saving the health of wood co-workers and motivating the wood mill to export its wood products, as well as minimizing the export of MDI.

Originality/value

This paper was based on enhancing the potential utilization of both undesirable RS agro wastes and environmentally unacceptable low-cost UF adhesive in the production of agro-composites that comply with the International Standard Specifications of particle board type. In this respect, a new HCHO-scavenger was synthesized and applied, based on AC from non-conventional xerogels. This study presents a solution to protect the environment from pollution, as a result of burning the undesirable RS, as well as to protect the workers and users of wood panels from exposure to the toxic and carcinogenic gas (formaldehyde). It also benefits in replacing the high cost of the RS adhesive (MDI) by using low-cost modified UF.

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Article
Publication date: 1 June 2002

Altaf Basta, Essam S. Abd El‐Sayed and Naim A. Fadl

Describes the novel utilization of waste newsprint paper as inexpensive agro‐fibers for production of lightweight building panels. Thermal gravimetric analysis of treated…

Abstract

Describes the novel utilization of waste newsprint paper as inexpensive agro‐fibers for production of lightweight building panels. Thermal gravimetric analysis of treated news paper fibers was studied as a method for testing fire retardancy of agro‐fibers in light building panels. The activation energy of degradation stages was evaluated by applying the Coats and Redfern method of analysis. Results showed that the treatment of newsprint waste with 6 per cent sodium silicate also improved fire retardancy in addition to improving the compressive strength of the produced panels, with the reduction in the bulk density to ∼28.6 per cent compared with gypsum panel. Such treatment gives the produced panels a relatively low water absorption property compared with those produced by other treatments.

Details

Pigment & Resin Technology, vol. 31 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0369-9420

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Article
Publication date: 1 May 2006

H. El‐Saied and A.H. Basta

To investigate the role of spent sulphite liquor (SSL) retained on neutral sulphite bagasse pulp in the binding action of phenolic resin, for the purpose of enhancing its…

Abstract

Purpose

To investigate the role of spent sulphite liquor (SSL) retained on neutral sulphite bagasse pulp in the binding action of phenolic resin, for the purpose of enhancing its performance to produce high quality agro‐based composite.

Design/methodology/approach

Pulps used in this work as agro‐based fibres were prepared from Asplund defibrator and neutral sulphite pulping processes. The performance of the resol resin in presence of SSL, were evaluated in terms of the effects of SSL constituents and using novolac as phenolic resin, in comparison with that prepared from pulps in absence of SSL and conventionally prepared resol – Asplund bagasse composites. Preparation of pulp free from sulphonyl groups and pre‐out‐precipitating the resol or lignosulphonic acid (LSA) on the strength and water resistance properties of the composite produced was also examined. The degraded hemicellulose and LSA in SSL were polynomial correlated with the changes in composites properties.

Findings

All neutral sulphite pulps investigated, in presence of SSL, were found to enhance the strength quality of agro‐based composite compared to commercially available resol‐agro‐based composite. The retained SSL on NS‐raw bagasse pulp could replace the Asplund bagasse pulp together with resol resin in production of agro‐composite. As well as, using neutral sulphite – Asplund bagasse pulp reduced the percent of added resol to half, to produce commercial resol agro‐based composite. The performance of the composite produced from novolac resin‐SSL‐neutral sulphite pulp and resol‐LSA‐neutral sulphite pulp exceeded 1.5 to 1.9 times the strength of commercially available composite.

Research limitations/implications

Despite the SSL retained on pulp success in improving the strength property of the resol resin‐agro‐composites, but it has an undesirable effect on water resistance of the product. This problem was resolved by avoiding the undesirable effect of sulphonyl groups on pulp fibres as well as the degraded hemicellulose in SSL.

Practical implications

The approach developed provided a simple and practical solution to enhancing the performance of phenolic resin as well as agro‐fibres and SSL wastes in the production of high performance lignocellulosic composite.

Originality/value

The resol, together with SSL constituents retained on neutral sulphite pulp, are economic bonding agents for agro‐fibres and could be used in wood mills for production of medium density fibre‐board.

Details

Pigment & Resin Technology, vol. 35 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0369-9420

Keywords

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