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Book part
Publication date: 29 May 2009

Matthew T. Holt and Barry K. Goodwin

This chapter reviews the specification and application of the Deaton and Muellbauer's (1980) almost ideal demand system (AIDS) and the Christensen et al. (1975) translog…

Abstract

This chapter reviews the specification and application of the Deaton and Muellbauer's (1980) almost ideal demand system (AIDS) and the Christensen et al. (1975) translog (TL) demand system. In so doing we examine various refinements to these models, including ways of incorporating demographic effects, methods by which curvature conditions can be imposed, and issues associated with incorporating structural change and seasonal effects. We also review methods for adjusting for autocorrelation in the models' residuals. A set of empirical examples for the AIDS and the log TL version of the translog based on historical meat price and consumption data for the United States are also presented.

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Quantifying Consumer Preferences
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-84855-313-2

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Article
Publication date: 8 June 2015

Sakiru Oladele Akinbode

Most demand studies have concentrated on the estimation of expenditure elasticities for single commodity at a time thereby not being able to reveal the details of the…

Abstract

Purpose

Most demand studies have concentrated on the estimation of expenditure elasticities for single commodity at a time thereby not being able to reveal the details of the relationships among various food items demanded by households. The purpose of this paper is to simultaneously estimate the demand equations for a number of food items and to estimate cross-price elasticities which are necessary for studying consumer behaviours, marketing, production planning and policy making.

Design/methodology/approach

Relevant data were collected from 320 randomly selected households in a multistage sampling procedure. The normalized data were analysed in a system of equation with symmetry, adding-up and homogeneity restrictions imposed on the model.

Findings

Expenditure elasticities show that gaari and palm oil were inferior food items while others could be classified as normal. Own-price elasticities showed that beans, plantain, yam flour and rice were luxuries while others were necessities. Cross-price elasticities revealed that some were substitutes of one another while others were compliments and some were not related.

Research limitations/implications

The data were collected using a month recall approach and generalizing its findings beyond such months of a year may be misleading. Therefore, other researchers should repeat the study across months and locations.

Social implications

The study recommended that food policies should be broad based to encompass majority of the food items consumed in the study area given the intrinsic relationship inherent among them as their demands were interrelated and consumer behaviours as revealed by various elasticities be considered in formulating food-related policies.

Originality/value

The paper emphasized the need to model food demand in a system of equations as against single equation modelling.

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International Journal of Social Economics, vol. 42 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0306-8293

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Article
Publication date: 1 March 1985

Tomas Riha

Nobody concerned with political economy can neglect the history of economic doctrines. Structural changes in the economy and society influence economic thinking and…

Abstract

Nobody concerned with political economy can neglect the history of economic doctrines. Structural changes in the economy and society influence economic thinking and, conversely, innovative thought structures and attitudes have almost always forced economic institutions and modes of behaviour to adjust. We learn from the history of economic doctrines how a particular theory emerged and whether, and in which environment, it could take root. We can see how a school evolves out of a common methodological perception and similar techniques of analysis, and how it has to establish itself. The interaction between unresolved problems on the one hand, and the search for better solutions or explanations on the other, leads to a change in paradigma and to the formation of new lines of reasoning. As long as the real world is subject to progress and change scientific search for explanation must out of necessity continue.

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International Journal of Social Economics, vol. 12 no. 3/4/5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0306-8293

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Article
Publication date: 30 January 2009

Abiodun Elijah Obayelu, V.O. Okoruwa and O.I.Y. Ajani

The purpose of this paper is to examine the impact of socio‐economic variables on households' food demand. This paper derived the indirect utility function in terms of…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine the impact of socio‐economic variables on households' food demand. This paper derived the indirect utility function in terms of expenditure and price through the use of nonlinear demand quadratic almost ideal demand system (QUAIDS) model to estimate price, expenditure and elasticities of food items consumed in the North‐Central, Nigeria, and the impact of the socio‐economic variables on households' food demand.

Design/methodology/approach

The primary data used came from random selection of 396 households between 2006 and 2007 through a stratified random sampling procedure from Kwara and Kogi states making up the North Central zone in Nigeria.

Findings

All own price elasticities of the six food groups analyzed (root and tubers – RT, cereal – CR, legume – LG, animal protein – AP, fruits and vegetable – FV, fats and oil) showed that they are price inelastic. The results of income elasticity show that AP consumption is the most sensitive to income changes, while fats and oil is the least sensitive to income changes. Factors that positively and significantly affected demand for LG, FV, AP, CR and RT were household size (HSZ), level of education, primary occupation, access to credit, presence of children ≤6 years mainly at P<0.01. HSZ (P<0.01) negatively affected demand for AP.

Originality/value

This paper is original and novel in that it examines the impact of socio‐economic variables on households' food demand. High‐income elasticities of demand for all the food groups in QUAIDS except fruits and vegetable, as well as fats and oils, suggests that income‐generating policies will foster higher levels of consumption for these commodities.

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China Agricultural Economic Review, vol. 1 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1756-137X

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Article
Publication date: 29 April 2014

Assem Abu Hatab and Eirik Romstad

The expected growth of China's cotton imports along with Egypt's quest for penetrating new cotton importing markets have together attracted the authors to investigate the…

Abstract

Purpose

The expected growth of China's cotton imports along with Egypt's quest for penetrating new cotton importing markets have together attracted the authors to investigate the competitiveness and the demand for Egyptian cotton in the Chinese market in order to capture the emerging opportunities that Egypt could gain from such a growing market. The paper aims to discuss these issues

Design/methodology/approach

The paper employs Balassa's index of revealed comparative advantage and Vollrath's indices of revealed competitive advantage in order to measure the competitiveness of Egyptian cotton exports. An Almost Ideal Demand System (AIDS) approach was then used to estimate demand parameters for Chinese cotton imports from Egypt and major supply sources during the period 1992-2011.

Findings

Results show that Egypt has experienced dramatic declines in its cotton comparative advantage over the analyzed period. The estimation results of the AIDS model indicate that Egypt's market share is positively affected by both own and US export prices, but negatively influenced by export prices of other competitors in the Chinese market. Results also indicate that Egyptian cotton is substitutable for cotton imports from all other regions, especially for US cotton. Moreover, additional Chinese expenditure on cotton imports would favor other suppliers. Finally, demand for Egyptian cotton was found to be more sensitive to price changes and there is a greater tendency for China to switch to Egyptian cotton than the other way around should relative prices change.

Originality/value

This paper is original and novel in that; despite numerous studies have been done on China's demand for cotton and the several studies have been carried out on export and marketing of Egypt's cotton, the issue of cotton trade between Egypt and China has rarely been empirically examined. Furthermore, our results update important parameter estimates, particularly import demand elasticities of cotton. For Egypt, the study provides useful policy implications that could help policy makers to improve informed decision making with regard topromoting cotton exports to the Chinese market. For China, the study helps understanding the interrelationship between the Chinese cotton market and other emerging exporting markets, while focusing on the Egyptian market.

Details

China Agricultural Economic Review, vol. 6 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1756-137X

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Article
Publication date: 1 March 1992

John Conway O'Brien

A collection of essays by a social economist seeking to balanceeconomics as a science of means with the values deemed necessary toman′s finding the good life and society…

Abstract

A collection of essays by a social economist seeking to balance economics as a science of means with the values deemed necessary to man′s finding the good life and society enduring as a civilized instrumentality. Looks for authority to great men of the past and to today′s moral philosopher: man is an ethical animal. The 13 essays are: 1. Evolutionary Economics: The End of It All? which challenges the view that Darwinism destroyed belief in a universe of purpose and design; 2. Schmoller′s Political Economy: Its Psychic, Moral and Legal Foundations, which centres on the belief that time‐honoured ethical values prevail in an economy formed by ties of common sentiment, ideas, customs and laws; 3. Adam Smith by Gustav von Schmoller – Schmoller rejects Smith′s natural law and sees him as simply spreading the message of Calvinism; 4. Pierre‐Joseph Proudhon, Socialist – Karl Marx, Communist: A Comparison; 5. Marxism and the Instauration of Man, which raises the question for Marx: is the flowering of the new man in Communist society the ultimate end to the dialectical movement of history?; 6. Ethical Progress and Economic Growth in Western Civilization; 7. Ethical Principles in American Society: An Appraisal; 8. The Ugent Need for a Consensus on Moral Values, which focuses on the real dangers inherent in there being no consensus on moral values; 9. Human Resources and the Good Society – man is not to be treated as an economic resource; man′s moral and material wellbeing is the goal; 10. The Social Economist on the Modern Dilemma: Ethical Dwarfs and Nuclear Giants, which argues that it is imperative to distinguish good from evil and to act accordingly: existentialism, situation ethics and evolutionary ethics savour of nihilism; 11. Ethical Principles: The Economist′s Quandary, which is the difficulty of balancing the claims of disinterested science and of the urge to better the human condition; 12. The Role of Government in the Advancement of Cultural Values, which discusses censorship and the funding of art against the background of the US Helms Amendment; 13. Man at the Crossroads draws earlier themes together; the author makes the case for rejecting determinism and the “operant conditioning” of the Skinner school in favour of the moral progress of autonomous man through adherence to traditional ethical values.

Details

International Journal of Social Economics, vol. 19 no. 3/4/5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0306-8293

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Article
Publication date: 1 January 1983

R.G.B. Fyffe

This book is a policy proposal aimed at the democratic left. It is concerned with gradual but radical reform of the socio‐economic system. An integrated policy of…

Abstract

This book is a policy proposal aimed at the democratic left. It is concerned with gradual but radical reform of the socio‐economic system. An integrated policy of industrial and economic democracy, which centres around the establishment of a new sector of employee‐controlled enterprises, is presented. The proposal would retain the mix‐ed economy, but transform it into a much better “mixture”, with increased employee‐power in all sectors. While there is much of enduring value in our liberal western way of life, gross inequalities of wealth and power persist in our society.

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International Journal of Sociology and Social Policy, vol. 3 no. 1/2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0144-333X

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Article
Publication date: 1 June 2000

George K. Chako

Briefly reviews previous literature by the author before presenting an original 12 step system integration protocol designed to ensure the success of companies or…

Abstract

Briefly reviews previous literature by the author before presenting an original 12 step system integration protocol designed to ensure the success of companies or countries in their efforts to develop and market new products. Looks at the issues from different strategic levels such as corporate, international, military and economic. Presents 31 case studies, including the success of Japan in microchips to the failure of Xerox to sell its invention of the Alto personal computer 3 years before Apple: from the success in DNA and Superconductor research to the success of Sunbeam in inventing and marketing food processors: and from the daring invention and production of atomic energy for survival to the successes of sewing machine inventor Howe in co‐operating on patents to compete in markets. Includes 306 questions and answers in order to qualify concepts introduced.

Details

Asia Pacific Journal of Marketing and Logistics, vol. 12 no. 2/3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-5855

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Article
Publication date: 5 May 2015

Li Jiang, Karen C. Seto and Junfei Bai

The impact of dietary changes associated with urbanization is likely to increase the demand for land for food production. The purpose of this paper is to examine the…

Abstract

Purpose

The impact of dietary changes associated with urbanization is likely to increase the demand for land for food production. The purpose of this paper is to examine the impact of urban economic development on changes in food demand and associated land requirements for food production.

Design/methodology/approach

Based on economic estimates from the Almost Ideal Demand System, feed conversion ratios, and crop yields, the authors forecast and compare future dietary patterns and land requirements for two types of urban diets in China.

Findings

The results show that the expenditure elasticities of oil and fat, meat, eggs, aquatic products, dairy, and liquor for the diet of capital cities are greater than those for the diet of small- and medium-sized cities. The authors forecast that capital city residents will experience a more rapid rate of increase in per capita demand of meat, eggs, and aquatic products, which will lead to much higher per capita land requirements. Projections indicate that total per capita land demand for food production in capital cities will increase by 9.3 percent, from 1,402 to 1,533 m2 between 2010 and 2030, while total per capita land demand in small- and medium-sized cities will increase only by 5.3 percent, from 1,192 to 1,255 m2.

Originality/value

The results imply that urban economic development can significantly affect the final outcomes of land requirements for food production. Urban economic development is expected to accelerate the rate of change toward an affluent diet, which can lead to much higher future land requirements.

Details

China Agricultural Economic Review, vol. 7 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1756-137X

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Article
Publication date: 1 March 1988

John Cheese, Abby Day and Gordon Wills

An updated version of the original (1985) text, the book covers all aspects of marketing and selling bank services: the role of marketing; behaviour of customers;…

Abstract

An updated version of the original (1985) text, the book covers all aspects of marketing and selling bank services: the role of marketing; behaviour of customers; intelligence, planning and organisation; product decisions; promotion decisions; place decisions; price decisions; achieving sales. Application questions help to focus the readers' minds on key issues affecting practice.

Details

International Journal of Bank Marketing, vol. 6 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0265-2323

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