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This paper aims to assess the often repeated, but empirically unconfirmed, supposition that there is a positive connection between foreign board members (FBMs) and firm…
This paper aims to assess the often repeated, but empirically unconfirmed, supposition that there is a positive connection between foreign board members (FBMs) and firm innovativeness and to set a research agenda for future studies on the topic.
The analyses are based on a large sample of firms within the European Union, utilizing patent and trademark data together with information on the national diversity of the boards.
The analyses confirm that there is a positive association between FBMs and firm innovativeness. Contrary to expectations, FBMs from less innovative countries than the countries of their host companies are more associated with innovative firms than are FBMs from more innovative countries.
This study provides empirical support for propositions, drawn from resource dependency theory and group effectiveness/diversity theories, that diverse boards of directors can lead to greater firm-level creativity and innovativeness. It also outlines a detailed research agenda for future studies to build on the tentative findings presented in this paper.
The findings suggest that greater national diversity in the board of directors can enhance innovation.
Earlier studies on board diversity have not analyzed empirically the issue of national diversity. The originality of this paper lies in its attempt to address this gap in the corporate governance literature.
The purpose of this paper is to propose an algorithm that is based on the ant colony optimization (ACO) metaheuristic for producing harmonized melodies. ACO is a nature…
The purpose of this paper is to propose an algorithm that is based on the ant colony optimization (ACO) metaheuristic for producing harmonized melodies. ACO is a nature inspired metaheuristic where a colony of ants searches for an optimum of a function. The algorithm works in two stages. In the first stage it creates a melody. The obtained melody is then harmonized according to the rules of baroque harmony in the second stage. A multi‐objective version of the algorithm is also proposed, where each tier is optimized as a separate objective.
The ACO metaheuristic is adapted to graphs representing notes and chords. Desirability of a sequence of notes is measured by conformance to compositional rules. The fitness of a melody is evaluated with five equally weighted rules governing smoothness of the melody curve, its contour, tendency tone resolution, tone colors and the pitch of the final note. Harmonization is guided by six rules, grouped into three tiers of two rules each. These rules cover chord arrangement, voice distance, voice leading, harmonic progression, smoothness, and chord resolution. Rules of a tier do not score unless those of the previous tier yield high values.
The proposed algorithm improves on the only other existing musical ACO by adding the notion of harmony and by evolving voices codependently. The output is comparable to different types of other existing algorithms (genetic algorithm, rule‐based search algorithm) in the field. The multi‐objective variant significantly enhances solution quality and convergence speed, which makes extensions of the system for real time performance realistic.
This algorithm is the first ACO algorithm proposed for the problem of melody creation and harmonization.
This paper examines how young people develop meaningful self-concepts in the postmodern social world. Drawing from an ethnographic investigation of punk subculture, I…
This paper examines how young people develop meaningful self-concepts in the postmodern social world. Drawing from an ethnographic investigation of punk subculture, I explore how identity work is performed when young people are saturated with competing self-definitions and encouraged to engage in reflexive self-doubt. Focusing on the ecstatic qualities of concerts, I describe a complex process of identity formation wherein youth emotionally experience their identities through ritual performance rather than constructing them through institutional affiliation or narrative. My analysis draws heavily from Bourdieu’s practice theory and the existential phenomenology of Merleau-Ponty, emphasizing the centrality of embodiment and performativity to postmodern identity. I conclude with a discussion of how postmodern theories of the nonself exaggerate the insecurity of contemporary identity, and I outline a new theoretical framework regarding identity formation that bridges the literatures on subjectivity and embodiment with classical work in symbolic interactionism.
Over the past decade, the rapid evolution of social media has impacted the field of human resource management in numerous ways. In response, scholars and practitioners…
Over the past decade, the rapid evolution of social media has impacted the field of human resource management in numerous ways. In response, scholars and practitioners have sought to begin an investigation of the myriad of ways that social media impacts organizations. To date, research evidence on a range of HR-related topics are just beginning to emerge, but are scattered across a range of diverse literatures. The principal aim of this chapter is to review the current literature on the study of social media in HRM and to integrate these disparate emerging literatures. During our review, we discuss the existent research, describe the theoretical foundations of such work, and summarize key research findings and themes into a coherent social media framework relevant to HRM. Finally, we offer recommendations for future work that can enhance knowledge of social media’s impact in organizations.
MR. ALLAN BARNS‐GRAHAM, of Craigallian, Milngavie, has sent us a copy of a letter, addressed by him to the Secretary of the Scottish Agricultural Organisation Society and printed in pamphlet form, which contains a number of points of considerable importance. MR. BARNS‐GRAHAM observes that Bran and “Thirds” play a most important part in the rearing and feeding of cattle, pigs, and poultry, and in the production of milk; that these two products ought to be used to a much greater extent than they are now; that large quantities are annually exported from this country; and that the supplies ought to be jealously guarded. He expresses the hope that the Agricultural Organisation Societies of Great Britain and Ireland will in no way encourage the manufacture of condensed milk—on the ground that it is not in the interest of the public health, nor in the interest of agriculture to encourage the manufacture of any article of food which can be made to keep indefinitely by artificial means. This appears to us to be a somewhat strange position to take up, unless the author's intention is to condemn the practice of keeping food products by means of chemical preservatives—in which case we agree with him. But the proper preservation of many food products by legitimate and harmless methods, not involving the use of chemicals or of other objectionable devices, is surely permissible and valuable to the community. Properly prepared and sterilised condensed milk is a very useful commodity if it is what it purports to be. In this connection we may say, however, that condensed milk containing large quantities of added sugar ought not to be sold as “condensed milk,” but as “condensed sweetened milk,” or “condensed milk and sugar”—the proportion of added sugar being prominently disclosed; while, in our view, the sale of “condensed sweetened; ‘separated,’ or ‘machine‐skimmed’ milk” ought to be prohibited altogether.