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Article
Publication date: 5 August 2020

Akshita Agrawal and Sheetal Chopra

This paper aims to extract the dye colourant from teak leaves using different aqueous mediums (Alkaline, Neutral and Acidic); to characterize the dye in terms of yield %;…

152

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to extract the dye colourant from teak leaves using different aqueous mediums (Alkaline, Neutral and Acidic); to characterize the dye in terms of yield %; ash content and moisture content; to standardize the conditions of application of dye extracted from teak leaves on selected natural and synthetic fabrics using selected natural and chemical mordants; to assess the colour value (K/S, L*, c*/ h*, a*, b*) and fastness properties of the dyed samples in terms of wash, rub, light and perspiration fastness; and to develop dyed and printed designs using combinations of mordant and extracted dye.

Design/methodology/approach

Stage 1 – Extraction of dye from teak leaves; and characterization of dye: yield% ash content and moisture content. Stage 2 – Preparation of fabrics for dyeing; optimization of mordanting parameters using pre mordanting method followed by post mordanting; and optimization of dyeing parameters. Stage 3 – Testing of dyed fabric – Colour Measurement; K/S L*a*b*/L*c*h*; fastness properties; wash fastness done in the Laundrometer using ISO 2 standard test method; crock fastness done by Crockmeter using AATCC 116–1995 test method; perspiration fastness tested by perspirometer using AATCC 15– 2007 test method; and light fastness assessment in Mercury Bulb Tungsten Filament (MBTF) light fastness tester using AATCC Test Method 16–2004.

Findings

The findings of the study show that waste teak leaves can be used as an effective dye for natural as well as synthetic fabrics giving a wide range of colours on wool, silk and nylon. The maximum relative colour strength of the extracted dye on unmordanted dyed samples was found to be at pH 5 on wool and silk and at pH 7 on nylon. A range of shades was obtained with the use of different mordants. The extracted dye showed moderate to good fastness properties in terms of light, wash, rub and perspiration on wool and silk and excellent on nylon. Fastness properties were found to improve with the application of mordants both as pre and post method. Various combinations of mordants and dye result in obtaining pleasing and harmonious colours which were used aesthetically for printing.

Research limitations/implications

Due to time constrains, extraction in an organic medium could not be done, which could be a further scope for study.

Practical implications

Dyeing using teak leaves is a step towards sustainability and effective waste utilization with promising potential for application on natural as well as synthetic fabrics. Good colour with added properties will provide excellent solutions for eco-friendly methods of dyeing.

Social implications

This paper demonstrates the new possibilities offered by innovative uses of by-products of the timber industry and open good prospects for alternatives to synthetic colourants and new markets for the textile industry. It offers a new tool for the development of slow fashion.

Originality/value

It is a common practice to prune the tree branches to improve wood quality; thus, leaves are easily available as by product from pruning and also from wood harvesting. In the present study, waste teak leaves (Tectona grandis L.) were used for the extraction of dye.

Details

Research Journal of Textile and Apparel, vol. 24 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1560-6074

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 9 August 2019

Esma Sezer and İpek Öztürk

Tannic acid (TA) is one of the green corrosion inhibitors for mild steel; its anti-corrosive performance in alkaline water on mild steel when it is used together with…

128

Abstract

Purpose

Tannic acid (TA) is one of the green corrosion inhibitors for mild steel; its anti-corrosive performance in alkaline water on mild steel when it is used together with polyaspartic acid (PASA) still has not been investigated. The purpose of this study is to develop an effective, biodegradable and environment-friendly novel corrosion inhibitor based on TA and PASA as an alternative to the conventional inorganic inhibitors for mild steel in decarbonised water, which is common in cooling systems.

Design/methodology/approach

Corrosion inhibition mechanism is investigated by electrochemical techniques such as polarisation measurements and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, and results were evaluated to determine the optimum inhibitor concentration for industrial applications. Additionally, practice-like conditions are carried out in pilot plant studies to simulate the conditions in cooling systems. Thus, the efficiencies of the inhibitors are evaluated through both weight loss and linear polarisation resistance measurements. Moreover, the corrosion product is characterised by scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (SEM-EDX) and Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) analysis.

Findings

TA shows high inhibition efficiency especially towards pitting corrosion for mild steel in decarbonised water. PASA addition in the cooling systems improves the inhibition efficiency of TA, and at lower concentrations of TA + PASA, it is possible to obtained better inhibition efficiency than TA alone at higher inhibitor amounts, which is essential in economic and environmental aspect.

Originality/value

A blended inhibitor program including TA and PASA with suggested concentrations in this work can be used as an environmental friendly treatment concept for the mild steel corrosion inhibition at cooling systems.

Details

Anti-Corrosion Methods and Materials, vol. 66 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0003-5599

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 13 October 2020

Zoi G. Ralli and Stavroula J. Pantazopoulou

Important differentiating attributes in the procedures used, the characteristic mineral composition of the binders, and the implications these have on the final long term…

Abstract

Purpose

Important differentiating attributes in the procedures used, the characteristic mineral composition of the binders, and the implications these have on the final long term stability and physico-mechanical performance of the concretes produced are identified and discussed, with the intent to improve transparency and clarity in the field of geopolymer concrete technologies.

Design/methodology/approach

This state-of-the-art review covers the area of geopolymer concrete, a class of sustainable construction materials that use a variety of alternative powders in lieu of cement for composing concrete, most being a combination of industrial by-products and natural resources rich in specific required minerals. It explores extensively the available essential materials for geopolymer concrete and provides a deeper understanding of its underlying chemical mechanisms.

Findings

This is a state-of-the-art review introducing the essential characteristics of alternative powders used in geopolymer binders and the effectiveness these have on material performance.

Practical implications

With the increase of need for alternative cementitious materials, identifying and understanding the critical material components and the effect they may have on the performance of the resulting mixes in fresh as well as hardened state become a critical requirement to for short- and long-term quality control (e.g. flash setting, efflorescence, etc.).

Originality/value

The topic explored is significant in the field of sustainable concrete technologies where there are several parallel but distinct material technologies being developed, such as geopolymer concrete and alkali-activated concrete. Behavioral aspects and results are not directly transferable between the two fields of cementitious materials development, and these differences are explored and detailed in the present study.

Details

International Journal of Structural Integrity, vol. 12 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1757-9864

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 March 1985

H.O. Ali and I.R.A. Christie

The literature on electroless gold deposition processes is reviewed both with respect to bath formulation and the kinetics of the electrochemical reduction and oxidation…

Abstract

The literature on electroless gold deposition processes is reviewed both with respect to bath formulation and the kinetics of the electrochemical reduction and oxidation reactions involved. Some modified formulations are discussed in more detail and components processed by the use of electroless gold deposition are illustrated.

Details

Circuit World, vol. 11 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0305-6120

Article
Publication date: 13 September 2011

Kasturie Premlall, J. Herman Potgieter and S. Potgieter‐Vermaak

The effect of chlorides on corrosion of reinforcing steel is well documented in the literature. However, few studies have focused attention on the effect of sulphates on…

Abstract

Purpose

The effect of chlorides on corrosion of reinforcing steel is well documented in the literature. However, few studies have focused attention on the effect of sulphates on the corrosion of low carbon steel in alkaline media. This paper aims to address this issue.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper describes the results of the investigation into the corrosion behaviour of low carbon steel (typically used as reinforcing steel), exposed to alkaline media at a pH of 9 and 12 with varying concentrations of sulphate and chloride ions, as well as, in sulphate only solutions. An attempt was made to inhibit corrosion of steel exposed to the corrosive media using laser surface treatment of the steel specimens. Mass loss tests and electrochemical tests were conducted to evaluate the effect of sulphate only and the combined effect of sulphate and chloride ions in an alkaline media on steel.

Findings

It was found that sulphate ions could cause corrosion of steel in alkaline media. The severity of the attack increased with increasing sulphate ion concentrations, as well as with combinations of sulphate and chloride ions. The pH 12 conditions seem to show much more critical attack with evidence of pitting corrosion as compared to uniform corrosion for test conditions at a pH of 9. The attempt to inhibit the observed corrosion of steel exposed to the corrosive high alkaline media containing sulphate ions on their own and in combination of chloride ions by laser surface treatment proved to be successful.

Originality/value

The research undertaken here adds to the body of knowledge relating to the effect of sulphate ions on reinforcing steel corrosion in highly alkaline media. Most literature points out that sulphate ions on their own do not have a corrosive effect, but rather, a passivating effect!

Details

Anti-Corrosion Methods and Materials, vol. 58 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0003-5599

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 September 2006

Shobha Manikandan, Jagannath, V.K. Shrikhande and G.P. Kothiyal

To study the degradation behaviour of borosilicate glass, which is suitable for hermetic sealing with Molybdenum and Kovar (Fe/Co/Ni) alloys, as a function of…

Abstract

Purpose

To study the degradation behaviour of borosilicate glass, which is suitable for hermetic sealing with Molybdenum and Kovar (Fe/Co/Ni) alloys, as a function of concentration and temperature in both acidic and alkaline media for long durations, up to 160 h.

Design/methodology/approach

The degradation (weight loss in mg/cm2 of the glass sample) was determined by immersing the glass sample in HCl and NaOH solutions at different temperatures for different periods extending up to 300 h. The damage to the glass surface was seen under an optical microscope and the chemical species on the corroded surface were identified by electron spectroscopy for chemical analysis.

Findings

The borosilicate glass, having the nominal composition 0.70 SiO2, 0.039 Na2O, 0.028 K2O, 0.21 B2O3, 0.01 Al2O3 was synthesized by melt and quench techniques. Degradation (corrosion) behaviour of this glass was investigated by immersing glass samples in 5 and 10 per cent HCl and 5 per cent NaOH solutions at different temperatures up to 90°C, for different periods and measuring dissolution rate (weight loss in mg/cm2 of the sample). Dissolution rates were found to be 5.47 mg/cm2 and 46.77 mg/cm2 in 5 per cent NaOH at 60 and 90°C, respectively, whereas they were comparatively low (2.59 and 5.80 mg/cm2 at 60 and 90°C, respectively, in 5 per cent HCl medium) after 160 h of total immersion period. The plot of dissolution rates against the temperatures showed the nonlinear behaviour at higher temperatures, probably due to the change in mechanism of corrosion. XPS studies exhibited the chemical species on the corroded surfaces. The optical microscopy of the corroded surface revealed that the corrosion mechanisms were different in acid and alkali media.

Research limitations/implications

The degradation behaviour of borosilicate glass having a specific composition has been investigated as a function of concentration and temperature in both acid and alkaline media. The mixed alkali effect on the degradation behaviour may be studied by varying relative amount of Na2O and K2O in the glass composition.

Practical implications

The glass composition under the present study has been used for fabrication of matched type glass‐to‐metal (GM) seals with kovar alloy. In this respect the present study is significant in deciding the environmental conditions for its use.

Originality/value

The degradation behaviour of borosilicate glass having alkali and alkaline earth metal oxides has been investigated as a function of concentration and temperature in both acid and alkali media. The findings in this paper have the potential implications in deciding the environmental conditions for use of GM seals fabricated using this glass.

Details

Anti-Corrosion Methods and Materials, vol. 53 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0003-5599

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 4 January 2013

Layla A. Al Juhaiman, Amal Abu Mustafa and Wafaa K. Mekhamer

The purpose of this paper is to study the corrosion inhibition of carbon steel (CS) using a “green” inhibitor, polyvinyl pyrrolidone (PVP), in an aerated, alkaline medium

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to study the corrosion inhibition of carbon steel (CS) using a “green” inhibitor, polyvinyl pyrrolidone (PVP), in an aerated, alkaline medium containing 0.1M NaCl (blank) at pH 9 and pH 10. The effects of some additives, such as KI and untreated Saudi clay (UC) were investigated.

Design/methodology/approach

Weight loss method, surface studies, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and potentiodynamic polarisation were applied.

Findings

The inhibition efficiencies of blank solutions with 1000 ppm PVP ranged from 66‐78% for weight loss results and from 23‐66% for the electrochemical tests. The EIS results indicated that the adsorption of PVP led to the formation of a protective film on the metal/solution interface. Tafel results indicated that PVP is a mixed‐type inhibitor. The addition of KI to PVP and the blank solution significantly increased inhibition efficiency, while the addition of UC reduced the inhibition efficiency. Adding KI resulted in a high surface‐area coverage ranging from about 91% after one hour to about 81% after 45 hours. The adsorption mechanism was fitted with a Langmuir isotherm.

Research limitations/implications

This is a static study, whereas in oil drilling there is a dynamic system; however the findings may apply to both systems.

Practical implications

Carbon steel is used in alkaline and neutral media in the petroleum industry. The effect of KI additives was examined.

Social implications

The paper shows how it may be possible to reduce the cost of repair of equipment and lower the environmental impact of corrosion.

Originality/value

There are few studies which investigate the combining effect of polymer and KI in alkaline medium containing NaCl.

Article
Publication date: 4 September 2017

Eddisson Francisco Hernández, Prisciliano Felipe de Jesus Cano-Barrita, Frank Manuel León-Martínez and Andres Antonio Torres-Acosta

This paper aims to present experimental results related to the performance of cactus mucilage (CM) and brown seaweed extracts (SEs) to inhibit reinforcing steel bar…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to present experimental results related to the performance of cactus mucilage (CM) and brown seaweed extracts (SEs) to inhibit reinforcing steel bar (rebar) corrosion in saturated calcium hydroxide alkaline solutions (pH = 12.5).

Design/methodology/approach

Electrochemical cells were prepared using CM solutions at 0.5, 1 and 1.38 per cent concentration (w/v), SE solutions at 0.5, 1, 1.38, 2 and 3 per cent concentration (w/v), sodium alginate at 1 per cent concentration (w/v) and calcium nitrite at 11.3 per cent (v/v). Each cell contained six deformed reinforcing steel bars of 9.5 mm nominal diameter. The experiments were performed at 23 ± 2°C in two stages. The first stage was aimed at stabilizing the rebar until passivation was reached. The second stage included adding NaCl in six steps from 0.5 to 16 g/L. Half-cell potential, linear polarization resistance and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy measurements were monitored during both stages.

Findings

The electrochemical test results indicated that both additions reduce the corrosion rate of rebars and pitting in an alkaline media with chloride ions (16 g/L NaCl). Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy results for rebars in natural-added solutions showed higher charge transfer resistance and double layer capacitance values, indicative of the formation of a second interface between the rebar and the electrolyte.

Research limitations/implications

The information obtained was for alkaline solutions only. Further investigation is performed using concrete as the alkaline electrolyte.

Practical implications

CM and SE may be suitable low-cost corrosion inhibitors for steel in concrete.

Social implications

The use of botanical or algae products for this application will encourage people to consider its production for this particular application. Also, the possible harvest in an environmental friendly way will diminish in the future the use of biohazards and toxic inhibitors.

Originality/value

This investigation is a continuation of a one presented in 2007, which uses only nopal mucilage. This new investigation corroborates what was concluded in the early investigation and incorporates a new natural by product, algae, as a possible corrosion inhibitor product.

Details

Anti-Corrosion Methods and Materials, vol. 64 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0003-5599

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 16 January 2007

E.E. Oguzie, G.N. Onuoha and E.N. Ejike

This paper aims to appraise the effectiveness of Gongronema latifolium extract as an environmentally friendly corrosion inhibitor for aluminium in strong acid (2 M HCl…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to appraise the effectiveness of Gongronema latifolium extract as an environmentally friendly corrosion inhibitor for aluminium in strong acid (2 M HCl) and alkaline (2 M KOH) environments.

Design/methodology/approach

Corrosion rates were determined using the gas‐volumetric technique. The efficiency of inhibition was estimated by comparing corrosion rates in absence and presence of the additive, while the mechanism of inhibition was assessed by considering temperature effects on corrosion and inhibition processes.

Findings

The results show that the extract was well adsorbed on the metal surface and significantly repressed aluminium corrosion in both environments. Inhibition efficiency generally increased with concentration up to maximum values of 97.54 and 90.82 per cent in 2 M HCl and 2 M KOH, respectively. Temperature dependence studies revealed that the extract was chemically adsorbed on the aluminium surface at all concentrations in 2 M HCl and physically adsorbed in 2 M KOH, with likely tendency to become chemisorbed at higher concentration.

Originality/value

Gongronema latifolium has been studied for the first time as an inhibitor of aluminium corrosion and the results suggest that the extract could find practical application in corrosion control in aqueous acidic and alkaline environments. The findings are particularly useful, considering the scarcity of reports on the effective inhibition of aluminium corrosion in strong alkaline solutions.

Details

Pigment & Resin Technology, vol. 36 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0369-9420

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 April 1971

M.N. Desai, S.M. Desai, M.H. Gandhi and C.B. Shah

The discovery of the Hall‐Herqult process for the manufacture of aluminium made it possible to obtain the metal in large quantities. Soon it attained the position of a…

Abstract

The discovery of the Hall‐Herqult process for the manufacture of aluminium made it possible to obtain the metal in large quantities. Soon it attained the position of a major industrial metal due to its lightness combined with strength, capacity to take up a high polish, excellent conductivity of heat and electricity. Moreover it gives a wide range of extremely valuable alloys with diverse elements such as copper, magnesium, nickel, silicon, zinc, etc.

Details

Anti-Corrosion Methods and Materials, vol. 18 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0003-5599

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