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Article
Publication date: 9 March 2020

DuckJung Shin, Alaine Garmendia, Muhammad Ali, Alison M. Konrad and Damian Madinabeitia-Olabarria

Despite decades of studies on high-involvement human resource management (HRM) systems, questions remain of whether high-involvement HRM systems can increase the…

Abstract

Purpose

Despite decades of studies on high-involvement human resource management (HRM) systems, questions remain of whether high-involvement HRM systems can increase the commitment of women. This study aims to contribute to the growing body of research on the cross-level effect of HRM systems and practices on employee affective commitment by considering the moderating role of gender.

Design/methodology/approach

Integrating social exchange theory with gender role theory, this paper proposes that gender responses to HRM practices can be different. The hypotheses were tested using data from 104 small- and medium-sized retail enterprises and 6,320 employees from Spain.

Findings

The findings generally support the study’s hypotheses, with women’s affective commitment responding more strongly and positively to employees’ aggregated perceptions of a shop-level high-involvement HRM system. The findings imply that a high-involvement HRM system can promote the affective commitment of women.

Originality/value

This study investigates the impact of both an overall HRM system and function-specific HRM sub-systems (e.g. training, information, participation and autonomy). By showing that women can be more positively affected by high-involvement HRM systems, this paper suggests that high-involvement HRM systems can be used to encourage the involvement and participation of women.

Details

Gender in Management: An International Journal , vol. 35 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1754-2413

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Article
Publication date: 1 March 2001

Mark E. Moore, Bonnie L. Parkhouse and Alison M. Konrad

Examines the effects of organizational characteristics, philosophical support, and substantive human resource management (HRM) programs on promoting gender equality within…

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3797

Abstract

Examines the effects of organizational characteristics, philosophical support, and substantive human resource management (HRM) programs on promoting gender equality within sport management. A questionnaire was developed to collect data on philosophical support and HRM practices within sport organizations and sent to 500 collegiate and professional sport organizations in the USA; 196 respondents (39 per cent) returned their completed survey forms. Findings indicated significant confirmatory paths between experiencing a gender discrimination lawsuit and philosophical support (t = –3.14, p < 0.05), philosophical support and substantive HRM programs (t = 9.56, p < 0.05) and philosophical support and representation of female managers (t = 2.36, p < 0.05). Concludes that philosophical support of top managers leads to the development of substantive HRM programs to promote gender equality in sport management and greater female manager representation.

Details

Women in Management Review, vol. 16 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0964-9425

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Article
Publication date: 15 May 2017

David Baldridge, Alison M. Konrad, Mark E. Moore and Yang Yang

Persons with childhood-onset disabilities are among the most marginalized populations, often unemployed or underemployment in jobs providing neither adequate hours for…

Abstract

Purpose

Persons with childhood-onset disabilities are among the most marginalized populations, often unemployed or underemployment in jobs providing neither adequate hours for financial self-sufficiency nor fulfillment through skill-utilization. The purpose of this paper is to examine the extent to which social capital in the form of strong ties with family and friends is associated with enhanced employment outcomes for persons with childhood-onset disabilities.

Design/methodology/approach

Questioning the current theoretical consensus that strong social ties are unimportant to employment quality, the authors draw on disability research and opportunity, motivation and ability social capital theory to propose a model of the impact of strong ties with family and friends on paid-work-hours and skill-utilization as well as the potential moderating role of gender and disability severity. The authors then test this model using data from 1,380 people with childhood-onset disabilities and OLS regression analysis.

Findings

As theorized, family-of-origin-size is positively associated with hours worked. Family-of-origin-size is also associated with having more close friends and children. These strong ties, in turn, are positively associated with hours worked. The impact of having more children on hours worked and skill-utilization, however, is positive for men but non-significant for women.

Originality/value

This study breaks new ground by focusing on the association between strong ties with family and friends and employment quality for people with childhood-onset disabilities – a marginalized and understudied group. Findings further indicate the particular vulnerability of women with disabilities.

Details

Equality, Diversity and Inclusion: An International Journal, vol. 36 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2040-7149

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 14 February 2018

Alison M. Konrad

The purpose of this paper is to document the racist undertones of Donald Trump’s Presidential campaign rhetoric and draw implications regarding its impact on equality…

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3133

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to document the racist undertones of Donald Trump’s Presidential campaign rhetoric and draw implications regarding its impact on equality, diversity, and inclusion. Most contemporary individuals reject explicitly racist beliefs and strive to present themselves as having egalitarian attitudes toward other races and ethnicities. However, commonly held implicit biases toward historically marginalized racioethnic groups drive negative effect that is often unconscious and unacknowledged. Inconsistency between the conscious and unconscious aspects of contemporary racism generates a population of individuals who are uncomfortable with their attitudes, creating an opening for politicians willing to leverage racist rhetoric and gain support by resolving this inconsistency.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper applies social psychological theory and research to address the questions of what attracts otherwise non-racist individuals to racist-tinged rhetoric. The paper also provides theory-based interventions for reducing the attractiveness and impact of racist political campaigns.

Findings

Supporters of racist politicians resolve the conflict between their negative feelings toward racioethnic minorities and their espoused anti-racist views by distancing themselves from racist rhetorical content in three ways: by denying that racist statements or actions occurred, denying that the statements or actions are racist, and/or by denying responsibility for racism and its effects. These techniques provide supporters with validation from an authority that they can express their negative affect toward out-groups and still consider themselves to be good people and not racists.

Practical implications

Distancing from racism has allowed contemporary American extremists to reframe themselves as victims of closed-minded progressives seeking to elevate undeserving and/or dangerous out-groups at the in-group’s expense. Effective anti-racism techniques are needed to counter implicit biases in order to limit the attractiveness of extremist views. Implicit biases can be effectively reduced through training in counter-stereotypic imaging, stereotype replacement, and structured inter-group interaction. Effectively countering denial of the facts involves affirming the audience’s belief system while building skepticism toward the sources of misinformation.

Social implications

While countering racist politicians requires commitment, these efforts are essential for protecting the identity of the USA as a society striving toward equality, diversity, and inclusion.

Originality/value

By articulating the social psychological principles underpinning racist-tinged populist rhetoric, this paper explains the attractiveness of racist statements by politicians, which tends to be under-estimated.

Details

Equality, Diversity and Inclusion: An International Journal, vol. 37 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2040-7149

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 17 May 2018

Jennifer Jones-Morales and Alison M. Konrad

The existence of disadvantaged sub-populations whose talents are under-leveraged is a problem faced by developing and developed countries alike. Life history data revealed…

Abstract

Purpose

The existence of disadvantaged sub-populations whose talents are under-leveraged is a problem faced by developing and developed countries alike. Life history data revealed that a large proportion of elite business leaders in the Caribbean emerged from childhood poverty (families subsisting on US$1-2 a day, 40 percent). The purpose of this paper is to examine the key factors supporting the career development of elite leaders from a broad socioeconomic spectrum and both genders in order to build a model of career development for elite leadership.

Design/methodology/approach

Data were collected via in-depth interviews from a deliberately gender-balanced sample of 39 male and 39 female elite business leaders. Thematic analysis identified consistencies across independent interviews and resulted in a model identifying factors supporting pre-career development as key to eventual attainment of elite leadership.

Findings

Findings indicated that in childhood and youth, proactivity plus talent recognition and mentoring by adults enhanced access to early developmental opportunities. Early career mentoring guided talented youth to build personal drive, self-esteem, altruism, and integrity, which created a foundation for developing career capital through values-based action. Altogether, these findings indicate the importance of pre-career relational capital to attainment of elite career success.

Originality/value

Difficult-to-access elite leaders provided rich information emphasizing the importance of pre-career development in childhood and youth to eventual elite leadership attainment. Virtually all of the elites in the sample remember being identified as talented early in life and consider early messages about drive to achieve as well as support received from parents, teachers, and other interested adults to be critical to their success. Hence, a process of talent recognition and encouragement to excel appear to be crucial for connecting young people to important relational capital allowing them to eventually achieve elite status, particularly those individuals hailing from disadvantaged backgrounds.

Details

Career Development International, vol. 23 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1362-0436

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 8 June 2012

Alison M. Konrad, Yang Yang and Kathleen Cannings

Relatively little research has examined whether pay dispersion influences men's and women's earnings differently. The purpose of this paper is to fill this research gap.

Abstract

Purpose

Relatively little research has examined whether pay dispersion influences men's and women's earnings differently. The purpose of this paper is to fill this research gap.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors used survey design and multiple regressions to analyze a sample of 650 Swedish medical doctors.

Findings

Pay dispersion was found to be negatively associated with both men's and women's earnings. These effects were contingent on compensation informality and the individual's position in the pay structure. Specifically, when pay dispersion was high, high compensation informality resulted in women being paid less. The interaction of pay dispersion and compensation informality was unrelated to men's earnings. Also, women who were paid less suffered larger penalties when pay dispersion was higher, but their female counterparts who were paid more gained from the existence of greater pay dispersion.

Originality/value

Examining the structure of labor markets on individual outcomes is increasing in importance due to the boundaryless nature of contemporary careers. As people cross functional, organizational, industrial, and even occupational boundaries more frequently in their career lifetimes, they are increasingly exposed to the structural effects of external labor markets. As such, the effects of factors such as pay dispersion and compensation informality in the market are becoming increasingly significant to the fortunes of women and men facing those conditions.

Details

Gender in Management: An International Journal, vol. 27 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1754-2413

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 10 February 2012

Alison M. Konrad, Mark E. Moore, Alison J. Doherty, Eddy S.W. Ng and Katherine Breward

The purpose of this paper is to examine whether the different employment statuses of under‐employment, temporary employment, unemployment and non‐participation in the…

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1939

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine whether the different employment statuses of under‐employment, temporary employment, unemployment and non‐participation in the labor force are associated with perceived well‐being among persons with disabilities.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors used data from the 2006 Participation and Activity Limitation Survey (PALS) conducted by Statistics Canada to develop six categories of employment status. OLS regression analysis was used for hypothesis testing.

Findings

Findings indicated that fully utilized permanent employees show the highest level of life satisfaction while unemployed persons searching for work have the lowest levels of life satisfaction and the highest levels of perceived workplace discrimination. Permanent employees whose skills are greatly underutilized show the second‐lowest level of life satisfaction and equally high perceived workplace discrimination as unemployed persons. Non‐participants in the labor force show life satisfaction levels similar to those of permanent moderately underutilized employees as well as temporary employees, but report relatively little workplace discrimination.

Originality/value

The study links vocational status to the psychological well‐being of persons with disabilities in a large representative sample covering the full spectrum of disability types and occupational statuses. As such, it validates conclusions from smaller studies examining single organizations or focusing on workers with specific types of disabilities.

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Article
Publication date: 16 March 2010

Mark E. Moore, Bonnie L. Parkhouse and Alison M. Konrad

The aim of this paper is to examine the effects of organizational characteristics, philosophical support, and substantive human resource management (HRM) programs on…

Downloads
2885

Abstract

Purpose

The aim of this paper is to examine the effects of organizational characteristics, philosophical support, and substantive human resource management (HRM) programs on promoting gender equality within sport management.

Design/methodology/approach

A questionnaire is developed to collect data on philosophical support and HRM practices within sport organizations and sent to 500 collegiate and professional sport organizations in the USA; 196 respondents (39 percent) returned their completed survey forms.

Findings

Findings indicate significant confirmatory paths between experiencing a gender discrimination lawsuit and philosophical support (t=−3.14, p<0.05), philosophical support and substantive HRM programs (t=9.56, p<0.05) and philosophical support and representation of female managers (t=2.36, p<0.05). The paper concludes that philosophical support of top managers leads to the development of substantive HRM programs to promote gender equality in sport management and greater female manager representation.

Originality/value

The paper provides useful insights into the effect of philosophical support from top managers on HRM programs that promote gender equality in sport management.

Details

Gender in Management: An International Journal, vol. 25 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1754-2413

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 16 September 2010

Mark E. Moore, Alison M. Konrad and Judith Hunt

This study aims to examine the effect of top management vision on top management support, practice, and the employment of managers with disabilities within the sport industry.

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1318

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to examine the effect of top management vision on top management support, practice, and the employment of managers with disabilities within the sport industry.

Design/methodology/approach

A questionnaire was developed to collect data on perception of top management vision, top management support, supportive practices, and representation of managers with disabilities in sport organizations and sent to 500 collegiate and professional sport organizations in the USA. In total, 196 respondents (39 percent) returned their completed survey forms, of which 190 forms were useable. Data were analyzed using path analysis.

Findings

The results indicated a significant path between supportive practices and the representation of managers with disabilities (β = 0.15, p < 0.05). Top management vision was also shown as a significant positive moderator of the relationship between top management support and supportive practices.

Practical implications

Results suggest that top management vision is an important addition to top management support for facilitating the implementation of supportive practices, which, in turn, increase the representation of persons with disabilities in managerial positions.

Originality/value

This is the first known empirical investigation examining the role of top management vision and top management support in creating managerial opportunities for persons with disabilities.

Details

Equality, Diversity and Inclusion: An International Journal, vol. 29 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2040-7149

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 1 September 1997

Nina Toren, Alison M. Konrad, Izumi Yoshioka and Roger Kashlak

Addresses the debate about gender‐based leadership/management styles by examining and comparing managerial task preferences and rating of work characteristics of women and…

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1589

Abstract

Addresses the debate about gender‐based leadership/management styles by examining and comparing managerial task preferences and rating of work characteristics of women and men in management positions in the USA, Japan, Australia, Israel and Italy. The findings do not support the notion that women have a distinct leadership style, e.g. that they are more people‐oriented than men, or that they differ consistently in their evaluation of various job factors, such as extrinsic versus intrinsic components. However, country of origin has strong and pervasive effects on management style and orientation in these terms. Japanese managers are markedly different from those in other countries (they exhibit a so‐called “feminine” style), while the Americans and Israelis resemble each other. The findings sustain the argument that managerial style is not mainly determined by gender but rather by contextual factors, such as national culture, organization and occupation.

Details

Women in Management Review, vol. 12 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0964-9425

Keywords

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