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Article
Publication date: 22 February 2011

Claudia Alvarez, David Urbano, Alicia Coduras and José Ruiz‐Navarro

The main objective of this paper is to analyse the influence of environmental factors on entrepreneurship at the Spanish regional level, using institutional economics as…

Abstract

Purpose

The main objective of this paper is to analyse the influence of environmental factors on entrepreneurship at the Spanish regional level, using institutional economics as the theoretical framework for the research. Additionally, this work aims to emphasize how environmental conditions have different effects according to the gender of entrepreneurs.

Design/methodology/approach

Regional panel data (19 Spanish regions and the 2006‐2009 period) from the Global Entrepreneurship Monitor (GEM), specifically from the Spanish National Expert Survey (NES) for environmental conditions and the GEM Adult Population Survey (APS) for entrepreneurial activity were analysed within a fixed effects model with panel corrected standard errors.

Findings

The main findings of the study indicate that both informal (cultural and social norms, perception of opportunities to start‐up and entrepreneur social image) and formal factors (intellectual property rights) influence entrepreneurship, but the informal are more determinant than the formal. Concerning the gender issues, informal and formal institutions are also determinant, but female entrepreneurship is significantly associated with the women's support to start‐up, whereas primary and higher education are associated only with male entrepreneurial activity.

Research limitations/implications

The results of the research should be interpreted carefully, because the availability of data constrained the analysis to a time period that is not reflective of the economic cycle; on the contrary, the data correspond to a period of recession, and thus the results cannot be generalized. Also, the study could extend the analysed period and compare the obtained results with international data, considering the global number of participant countries in the GEM Project.

Originality/value

The study provides a methodology to analyse the environmental factors for new firm creation at a regional level, combining GEM data and institutional economics.

Details

Journal of Small Business and Enterprise Development, vol. 18 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1462-6004

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 12 October 2012

Juan Carlos Díaz‐Casero, D. Ángel Manuel Díaz‐Aunión, Mari Cruz Sánchez‐Escobedo, Alicia Coduras and Ricardo Hernández‐Mogollón

The purpose of this paper is to examine empirically whether economic freedom affects entrepreneurial activity in three groups of countries, classified according to…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine empirically whether economic freedom affects entrepreneurial activity in three groups of countries, classified according to economic development.

Design/methodology/approach

Data on the index of entrepreneurial activity cover the period between 2002 and 2009, and are taken from the annual GEM (Global Entrepreneurship Monitor) reports and from the Index of Economic Freedom published by The Heritage Foundation from 1995 to 2009. The same analysis is carried out, grouping the countries by development level, following the classification included in the Global Competitiveness Report 2009‐2010. A Ridge regression analysis is performed to measure the model's goodness‐of‐fit and to determine equations that can be used for future predictions.

Findings

The results obtained in the correlation analysis show that economic freedom is closely related to entrepreneurial activity. The results suggest that TEA rates, opportunity‐TEA rates and necessity‐TEA rates decrease when there is an increase in economic freedom in a country, as just two of the areas analyzed – i.e. “government size” and “fiscal freedom” – appear to foster the emergence of new entrepreneurs. When countries are grouped by level of economic development, the results for countries belonging to the “Innovation‐Driven Economies” group show that the opportunity‐TEA rates increase as the economic freedom index grows.

Originality/value

The study indicates that entrepreneurship by opportunity increases in the group of Innovation‐Driven Economies with smaller “government size” and more “fiscal freedom”.

Details

Management Decision, vol. 50 no. 9
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0025-1747

Keywords

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Book part
Publication date: 7 December 2016

Arch G. Woodside, Pedro Mir Bernal and Alicia Coduras

This chapter shows how to construct and test case-based macro models. The chapter makes use of national data to examine influences on quality-of-life of national cultures…

Abstract

Synopsis

This chapter shows how to construct and test case-based macro models. The chapter makes use of national data to examine influences on quality-of-life of national cultures as complex wholes and entrepreneurship activities in Brazil, Russia, India, China, Germany, and the United States (the six focal nations) plus Denmark (a small-size, economically developed, nation). The study tests McClelland’s (1961) and more recent scholars’ proposition that some cultural configurations nurture entrepreneur startups, while other cultures are biased toward thwarting startups. The study applies complexity theory to develop and empirically test a general theory of cultures’, entrepreneurship’s, and innovation’s impact on quality-of-life across nations. Because culture represents a complex whole of attitudes, beliefs, values, and behavior, the study applies a set-theoretic approach to theory development and testing of alternative cultural configurations. Each of 28 economical developed and developing nations is scored for the level of the national cultures for each of six focal countries. The study selected for the study enables multi-way comparisons of culture-entrepreneurship-innovation-QOL among large- and small-sized developing and developed nations. The findings graphically present the complex national cultural configuration (x-axis) with entrepreneur nurture/thwart (y-axis) of the 28 nations compared to the six focal nations. The findings also include recognizing national cultures (e.g., Switzerland, the United States) nurturing entrepreneurial behavior versus other national cultures (e.g., Brazil and India) thwarting entrepreneurial behavior. The study concludes with a call to recognize the implicit shift in culturally implicit thinking and behavior necessary for advancing national platforms designed to successfully nurture entrepreneurship. Entrepreneur strategy implications include the observation that actions nurturing firm start-ups by nations low in entrepreneurship will unlikely to be successful without reducing such nations’ high levels of corruption.

Details

Case Study Research
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78560-461-4

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Article
Publication date: 1 March 2013

Juan Carlos Díaz Casero, Manuel Almodóvar González, María de la Cruz Sánchez Escobedo, Alicia Coduras Martínez and Ricardo Hernández Mogollón

The aim of this study is to analyze the impact of institutions on entrepreneurship in groups of countries classified according to their economic development.

Abstract

Purpose

The aim of this study is to analyze the impact of institutions on entrepreneurship in groups of countries classified according to their economic development.

Design/methodology/approach

Data used come from the Global Entrepreneurship Monitor, the Economic Freedom in the World Index; and from the Global Competitiveness Report.

Findings

The results provide useful information for the public and private sectors as evidence that some institutional variables that influence business creation depend on the development stage and report critical aspects to progress in each type of country in order to foster entrepreneurship. In developing nations the “size of the business sector” and “health and primary education” are critical variables, while for transition economies they stack the “integrity of the legal system” and “fulfilling contracts” and for developed economies the “size of the government” and “credit available to the private sector”.

Originality/value

This study constitutes an unusual approach because the literature on the impact of institutions on entrepreneurship is very scarce.

Details

Management Decision, vol. 51 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0025-1747

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 20 June 2016

Jesús Ruiz, Domingo Ribeiro Soriano and Alicia Coduras

The purpose of this paper is to establish a readiness for entrepreneurship theoretical framework. The paper marks the first of three stages to build a scale to measure…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to establish a readiness for entrepreneurship theoretical framework. The paper marks the first of three stages to build a scale to measure readiness for entrepreneurship.

Design/methodology/approach

The current paper is conceptual. The research approach consists of formulating proposals and definitions based on an extensive literature review.

Findings

The literature review reveals that no such readiness for entrepreneurship measurement tool exists. The literature review also yields definitions and components of key concepts for the theoretical framework.

Research limitations/implications

The paper offers a new, holistic perspective of readiness for entrepreneurship. This research addresses measurement of readiness for entrepreneurship from a rigorous, scientific approach. The main limitation lies in capturing and organizing extensive information on topics from diverse disciplines (i.e. sociology, psychology, and business management).

Practical implications

This theoretical framework enables the design and creation of a scale to measure readiness for entrepreneurship. The literature review confirmed the possibility of building such a measurement scale.

Social implications

A complex tool able to identify and measure readiness for entrepreneurship would be applicable in numerous situations including the following: determining entrepreneurial abilities, analyzing potential for entrepreneurship, simulating organizational transformations, and evaluating investment recommendations.

Originality/value

No holistic, scientifically grounded tool to measure readiness for entrepreneurship exists, yet there are numerous entrepreneurial capacity tests with no rigorous scientific grounding. As a remedy, this paper provides solid scientific foundations upon which to develop an instrument for measuring readiness for entrepreneurship.

Details

Management Decision, vol. 54 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0025-1747

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Article
Publication date: 8 August 2016

Harry Matlay

Abstract

Details

Education + Training, vol. 58 no. 7/8
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0040-0912

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 3 August 2012

Stephanie J. Arthur, Robert D. Hisrich and Ángel Cabrera

The aim of this study was to determine what facilitators and impediments to regional and global entrepreneurship exist, as identified by the 145 industry contacts globally…

Abstract

Purpose

The aim of this study was to determine what facilitators and impediments to regional and global entrepreneurship exist, as identified by the 145 industry contacts globally surveyed, and if education stood out as a critical factor.

Design/methodology/approach

An electronic, open‐ended survey was conducted; responses were categorized into three groups of factors – i.e. economic, social and personal – and analyzed accordingly by region and job function of respondent.

Findings

The survey revealed many similarities among responses, regardless of country of origin; although education was not the most frequently cited factor critical for successful entrepreneurship, it did rate highly in comparison to others.

Research limitations

Larger studies are needed to corroborate the findings of this initial study, particularly in some regional categories. The open‐ended question format required some subjective interpretation by the researchers; future surveys utilizing an objective answer format would be recommended.

Practical implications

The amount of consensus indicates that if entrepreneurs, academics, and others collaborated and pooled their knowledge and resources, some of the critical barriers to success could be overcome. The field could benefit by future research focusing on identifying specific collaboration strategies among regions or countries leading to the growth of entrepreneurial ventures and economic development.

Originality/value

Surveying experts regarding the facilitators and impediments to entrepreneurship (both regionally and globally) will help to bridge the gulf between theory and practical solutions to drive economic development.

Details

Journal of Small Business and Enterprise Development, vol. 19 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1462-6004

Keywords

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