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Article
Publication date: 9 October 2017

Ali Sohaib, Laurence Broadbent, Abdul Rehman Farooq, Lyndon Neal Smith and Melvyn Lionel Smith

Significant research has been carried out in terms of development of new bidirectional reflectance distribution function (BRDF) instruments; however, there is still little…

Abstract

Purpose

Significant research has been carried out in terms of development of new bidirectional reflectance distribution function (BRDF) instruments; however, there is still little research available regarding spectral BRDF measurements of human skin. This study aims to investigate the variation in human skin reflectance using a new fibre optic-based spectral-BRDF measurement device.

Design/methodology/approach

Design of this system mainly involves use of multiple fibre optics to illuminate and detect light reflected from a sample, whereas a hemispherical dome was 3D printed to mount the fibres at various slant/tilt angles. To investigate the spectral differences in BRDF of human skin, 3 narrowband filters in the visible spectrum were used, whereas measurements were taken from the back of the hand for Caucasian and Asian skin types.

Findings

The experiments demonstrate that the BRDF of human skin varies with wavelengths in the visible spectrum and it is also different for Caucasian and Asian skin types. Both skin types exhibit off-specular reflection with increase in angle of incidence and show less variation with respect to viewing angles when the angle of incidence is normal to the surface.

Research implications

A database of spectral BRDF measurements of human skin will help not only in creating realistic skin renderings but also in development of novel skin reflectance models for biomedical and machine vision applications. The measurements would also provide means to validate the predictions from existing light transport/spectral simulation models for human skin and will ultimately help in the accurate diagnosis and simulation of various skin disorders.

Originality/value

The proposed system provides fast scatter measurements by utilising multiple fibres to detect light simultaneously at different angles while also allowing easy switching between incident light directions. Due to its flexible design and contact-based measurements, the device is independent of errors due to sample movements and does not require any image registration. Also, measurements taken from the device show that the BRDF of skin varies significantly in the visible spectrum and it is different for Caucasian and Asian skin types.

Details

Sensor Review, vol. 37 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0260-2288

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Article
Publication date: 9 October 2017

Sadia Bibi and Amjad Ali

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the effect of motivation to share, interpersonal trust, job involvement, job satisfaction and continuance commitment on…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the effect of motivation to share, interpersonal trust, job involvement, job satisfaction and continuance commitment on knowledge sharing behavior of academics in higher education institutes.

Design/methodology/approach

Data were conveniently collected through a self-administered questionnaire from 369 academics working in six public sector universities of Pakistan. Correlation and incremental regression analyses were run to draw the results.

Findings

Results reveal that 24 percent of the variation in KSB is due to the changes in all the independent variables – intrinsic motivation, extrinsic motivation, interpersonal trust, job involvement, job satisfaction and continuance commitment. The study also identifies job involvement and continuance commitment as strong determinants of knowledge sharing behavior among academics.

Research limitations/implications

To facilitate knowledge sharing behavior among academics, management of the universities must provide the ways for improving the levels of job involvement, continuance commitment and job satisfaction.

Originality/value

This is the first study that investigated the combined effect of intrinsic motivation, extrinsic motivation to share, interpersonal trust, job involvement, job satisfaction and continuance commitment on knowledge sharing behavior of teachers in public sector universities in Pakistan.

Details

Journal of Applied Research in Higher Education, vol. 9 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2050-7003

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Article
Publication date: 6 February 2018

Yeganeh Charband and Nima Jafari Navimipour

The aim of this paper is to provide a comprehensive and detailed review of the state-of-the-art mechanisms of knowledge sharing in the education field as well as…

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Abstract

Purpose

The aim of this paper is to provide a comprehensive and detailed review of the state-of-the-art mechanisms of knowledge sharing in the education field as well as directions for future research.

Design/methodology/approach

In the current study, a systematic literature review until June 2017 is presented, which has been on the education’s mechanisms of knowledge sharing. The authors identified 237 papers, which are reduced to 71 primary studies through the paper selection process.

Findings

By providing the state-of-the-art information, the challenges and issues, this survey will directly support academics, researchers and practicing professionals in their understanding of knowledge sharing developments in education.

Research limitations/implications

There are several limitations in this study. First, this study limited the search for articles to Google scholar and four online databases. There might be other academic journals, which may be able to provide a more comprehensive picture of the articles related to the knowledge sharing in education. Second, non-English publications were excluded from this study. The authors believe research regarding the application of knowledge sharing techniques have also been discussed and published in other languages. In addition, more studies need to be carried out using other methodologies such as interviews.

Originality/value

The paper presents a comprehensive structured literature review of the articles’ mechanisms of knowledge sharing in the education field. The paper’s findings can offer insights into future research needs.

Details

Kybernetes, vol. 47 no. 7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0368-492X

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 13 March 2017

Faizan Saleem, Salman Nisar, Muhammad Ali Khan, Sohaib Zia Khan and Mohammad Aslam Sheikh

The purpose of this paper is to formulate a benchmark to increase the tyre curing press production rate while minimizing tyre curing press downtime and maintenance cost…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to formulate a benchmark to increase the tyre curing press production rate while minimizing tyre curing press downtime and maintenance cost with the help of a maintenance management technique based on overall equipment effectiveness (OEE).

Design/methodology/approach

The methodology is based on determining the OEE of tyre curing press before and after rectifying the causes of failures. The failure mode and effect analysis (FMEA) technique is used to find out the root causes of repetitive failures in tyre curing press by using the risk priority number.

Findings

A significant change in the value of OEE is observed after rectifying the repetitive failures, which were determined using the FMEA technique. Thus, it is concluded that the OEE and FMEA assist in improving the industrial performance and competitiveness of the production equipment studied.

Research limitations/implications

This study is limited to determining the OEE of single equipment only, not the whole production system. Manufacturing facilities are dependent on the operating environment; therefore a comparison of two different manufacturing plants based on the OEE value would not be justified.

Practical implications

This study can be applied in any tyre manufacturing industry in order to take competitive benefits, such as reduction in equipment downtime, increased production and reduction in maintenance cost.

Originality/value

The angle from which the paper approaches the bottleneck problem in a tyre production line is original for the studied company and shows positives results. It allows the company to apply the same approach in its other production equipment, lines and factories to achieve improvement in industrial performance and competitiveness.

Details

Journal of Quality in Maintenance Engineering, vol. 23 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-2511

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 2 October 2019

Mukaram Ali Khan, Syed Sohaib Zubair and Maria Malik

The purpose of this paper is to examine e-service quality (E-SQ) of online shopping in Pakistan using “E-S-QUAL scale.” Moreover, in this study, the relationship of E-SQ…

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1511

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine e-service quality (E-SQ) of online shopping in Pakistan using “E-S-QUAL scale.” Moreover, in this study, the relationship of E-SQ with e-customer satisfaction (E-CS) and e-customer loyalty (E-CL) has been studied.

Design/methodology/approach

Following a quantitative research methodology, data were collected from 298 respondents using convenience sampling and survey research design was followed. In order to develop the model and test the hypotheses, structure equation modeling (SEM) was done through AMOS.

Findings

Findings indicate that all of the first latent constructs are significant where E-CS and E-CL (dependent variables) are influenced by E-SQ (independent variable). Using SEM, statistically fit structural model was developed on the basis of confirmatory factor analysis. The analysis shows that there is a strong positive relation between E-SQ and E-CS and E-SQ and E-CL.

Practical implications

Asian markets have been identified as the fastest growing e-commerce markets in present era. Similarly, retail sector in Pakistan is booming, at the same time an exponential increase is being observed in the number of internet users and online shopping. It is important for marketers and retailers to explore new horizons and enter the age of e-commerce for expansion of their businesses.

Originality/value

The increasingly wide use of the internet is influencing everything around the globe and these emerging e-commerce trends have tremendously changed the mode of shopping from brick and mortars to e-stores. The study explores the e-commerce and focuses on E-SQ and its impact on E-CS and E-CL in the context of a developing economy, i.e. Pakistan, uncovering the key dimensions and attributes.

Details

South Asian Journal of Business Studies, vol. 8 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2398-628X

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 20 May 2021

Aamna Tariq Mukaram, Kashif Rathore, Mukaram Ali Khan, Rizwan Qaiser Danish and Syed Sohaib Zubair

In rapidly changing global village, individuals, organizations and the society are faced with various unforeseen challenges every day, and these challenges continuously…

Abstract

Purpose

In rapidly changing global village, individuals, organizations and the society are faced with various unforeseen challenges every day, and these challenges continuously trigger and test the instincts for survival, and higher education is of no exception. In the context of today’s most critical uncertainty, i.e. COVID-19, the purpose of this study is to highlight the significance of two leadership styles, i.e. adaptive and academic leadership, and assessing readiness for change among higher education institutions (HEIs) of Punjab, Pakistan.

Design/methodology/approach

An online survey was conducted to collect data from 404 permanent faculty members in the public sector universities identified using stratified random sampling. The hypotheses developed were tested using co-variance-based structural equation modeling.

Findings

As per the findings, both leadership styles as exogenous constructs and the presence of organizational learning capability as mediators contributed positively in crafting organizational readiness for change (ORC) among HEIs in the course of unpredictable circumstances.

Practical implications

The COVID-19 episode globally has reiterated the importance of change, and the role of leadership in this regard cannot be undermined. This study, for that matter, stresses on the importance and benefits of academic and adaptive leadership dealing with uncertainties or change and the readiness of HEIs for change. Several institutions faced challenges in doing so, and the transition was not smooth, except for institutions where leaders were the differentiating factor. On top of it, institutions that had timely invested in digital systems and had enhanced organizations learning capacity survived in these turbulent times.

Originality/value

COVID-19 has placed tremendous challenges on HEIs to adapt with the rapidly changing conditions. Hence, this study is unique in understanding the academic and adaptive leadership styles in context of ORC. This study further helps in understanding that how public sector universities that are already influenced by stringent bureaucratic structures react to change.

Details

Management Research Review, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2040-8269

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Article
Publication date: 29 May 2019

Saeidi Ramyani Saleh, Ehsan Mousavi Khaneghah, Nosratollah Shadnosh and Amirhosein Reyhani ShowkatAbad

This paper aims to propose a mathematical model for describing and clarifying the relationships among the indicators governing the social values of special customers in…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to propose a mathematical model for describing and clarifying the relationships among the indicators governing the social values of special customers in business-to-consumer (B2C) e-commerce systems. This mathematical model is also able to describe the degree of adaptability of e-commerce systems to the social values of specific clients, and commercial firms are able to use the parameters described in this paper to increase the versatility and has the power to trade with special customers in different areas.

Design/methodology/approach

In this paper, while analyzing the issue of trading from the point of view of the customer as an element of trading, the affecting factors the trading space have been extracted. These affecting factors are categorized in three major groups: culture, technology and customers. This classification is based on the e-commerce and developing the traditional commerce. Using the mapping functions, the effects of each element in these three spaces on the concept of social values have been analyzed. The result of this analysis is the mathematical model governing each parameter and its semantic relation with the concept of social value.

Findings

The presence of a mathematical model between the indicators influencing the model adaptability and social values space allows e-commerce system designers to be able to make decisions on the adaptability of the model with a quantitative approach. To examine the proposed mathematical models, important frameworks and patterns in the field of e-commerce have been analyzed with an Islamic approach, as one of the adaptations of B2C e-commerce model.

Research limitations/implications

Regarding the innovation of the work, the case has been made, and the concept of social value and the model governing the elements of social values in this paper, in a B2C e-commerce model, has been discussed in general; the problem is parametric solved.

Practical implications

One of the key concepts in commerce is the ability of the commerce model to adapt to the requirements of special customers. This is more important in costumer-based e-commerce models. In these types of systems, if the commerce cannot match the customer’s characteristics, it will not be accepted and used by customers. This is especially more important in the field of social values for customers.

Originality/value

In this paper, a mathematical model is presented to examine the adaptability of e-commerce systems to the social values of special customers. In examining this model, the relationship between each element affecting the social value of specific customers and the factors affecting trade has been studied.

Details

Journal of Islamic Marketing, vol. 10 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1759-0833

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 8 June 2015

Muhammad Ali Khan, Ahmed Farooq Cheema, Sohaib Zia Khan and Shafiq-ur-Rehman Qureshi

The purpose of this paper is to show the development of an image processing-based portable equipment for an automatic wear debris analysis. It can analyze both the…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to show the development of an image processing-based portable equipment for an automatic wear debris analysis. It can analyze both the qualitative and quantitative features of machine wear debris: size, quantity, size distribution, shape, surface texture and material composition via color.

Design/methodology/approach

It comprises hardware and software components which can take debris in near real-time from a machine oil sump and process it for features diagnosis. This processing provides the information of the basic features on the user screen which can further be used for machine component health diagnosis.

Findings

The developed system has the capacity to replace the existing off-line methods due to its cost effectiveness and simplicity in operation. The system is able to analyze debris basic quantitative and qualitative features greater than 50 micron and less than 300 micron.

Originality/value

Wear debris basic features analysis tool is developed and discussed. The portable and near real-time analysis offered by the discussed work can be more technically effective as compared to the existing off-line and online techniques.

Details

Industrial Lubrication and Tribology, vol. 67 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0036-8792

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 7 January 2014

Rana Zamin Abbas, Hasan Sohaib Murad, Naveed Yazdani and Ali Asghar

This study seeks to explore the existential meaningfulness of HR managers' work. The purpose of this study is to investigate the influence of four existential attributes…

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1967

Abstract

Purpose

This study seeks to explore the existential meaningfulness of HR managers' work. The purpose of this study is to investigate the influence of four existential attributes that are death, responsibility, alienation and meaningfulness, on the work of HR managers. The study also asserts that the work of HR managers has an existential dimension to it. It also argues that HR managers have human qualities. They react to human predicament and need emotional identification with their work and organization.

Design/methodology/approach

The study is based on the responses of HR managers developed on the basis of an interview guide specifically designed for this purpose. The data have been collected through extensive and in-depth field interactions with HR managers working in diverse organizations. The research approach taken here is to focus on the discrete moments of role performance of HR managers that represent microcosms of the larger complexity. Those moments are windows into the multiplicity of factors that are constantly relevant to person-role dynamics. Focusing on specific moments of work role performance of HR managers is like using the zoom lens of a camera: a distant stationary image is brought close and revealed as a series of innumerable leaps of engagement and falls of disengagement.

Findings

The study brings out the emotional and human dilemmas of HR managers working in public and private sector organizations. While discussing and linking Kahn's model with Sartrean thoughts can provide unique perspective within the strategic human resource management especially in Pakistani organizations which was missing not only in Kahn's model but also in management literature.

Originality/value

The study makes a fresh inquiry into the nature of HRM and the existential realities experienced by the HR managers at work place. The study is unique because of its extensive field interactions based on a well-designed interview guide hitherto unapplied in the organization studies.

Details

International Journal of Social Economics, vol. 41 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0306-8293

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 1 May 2020

Habibullah Magsi, Abid Ali Randhawa and Atta Hussain Shah

The purpose of this paper is to explore halal meat production potential and export potential in Pakistan. Following this, the paper is to both stimulate the business and…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to explore halal meat production potential and export potential in Pakistan. Following this, the paper is to both stimulate the business and encourage research within this field.

Design/methodology/approach

For this study, both primary and secondary data were used. Time-series meat production and export data from 1994-1995 to 2015-2016 were collected from different secondary sources; where primary data were collected from distinguish livestock experts on the possibility of halal meat production in various provinces of the country.

Findings

Results show that during 1994-1995 to 2015-2016, annual average growth rates of meat production and export were 3 and 32%, respectively. Based on these growth rates, it was estimated that Pakistan's total meat production and export is projected to be 6,078 thousand tons and $17,477m by 2029-2030. Results regarding the expert opinion survey indicates that Balochistan province has comparative advantage to rare livestock for beef and mutton meat production over rest of the provinces; there is potency for producing chicken meat in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa (KPK) and Punjab provinces, while Sindh province has almost the same efficiency to produce beef and chicken meat.

Practical implications

Experts were in opinion that high yielding livestock breeds should be introduced to farmers; and comprehensive training programs should be designed for all the stockholders involved in meat production, and processing to exports chains. Therefore, it is suggested that registered and corporate livestock farming can be only solution to fulfill required standards of raw and processed meat business in international markets.

Originality/value

At current, halal meat export is considered as major activity of livestock sector of Pakistan: where, this is one of the pioneer studies exploring potential of halal meat production in various parts of the country, which can not only contribute in national income but support the balance of payments of the country.

Details

Journal of Islamic Marketing, vol. 12 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1759-0833

Keywords

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