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Article
Publication date: 16 July 2019

Donghee (Don) Shin, Anestis Fotiadis and Hongsik Yu

The purpose of this study is to offer a roadmap for work on the ethical and societal implications of algorithms and AI. Based on an analysis of the social, technical and…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to offer a roadmap for work on the ethical and societal implications of algorithms and AI. Based on an analysis of the social, technical and regulatory challenges posed by algorithmic systems in Korea, this work conducts socioecological evaluations of the governance of algorithmic transparency and accountability.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper analyzes algorithm design and development from critical socioecological angles: social, technological, cultural and industrial phenomena that represent the strategic interaction among people, technology and society, touching on sensitive issues of a legal, a cultural and an ethical nature.

Findings

Algorithm technologies are a part of a social ecosystem, and its development should be based on user interests and rights within a social and cultural milieu. An algorithm represents an interrelated, multilayered ecosystem of networks, protocols, applications, services, practices and users.

Practical implications

Value-sensitive algorithm design is proposed as a novel approach for designing algorithms. As algorithms have become a constitutive technology that shapes human life, it is essential to be aware of the value-ladenness of algorithm development. Human values and social issues can be reflected in an algorithm design.

Originality/value

The arguments in this study help ensure the legitimacy and effectiveness of algorithms. This study provides insight into the challenges and opportunities of algorithms through the lens of a socioecological analysis: political discourse, social dynamics and technological choices inherent in the development of algorithm-based ecology.

Details

Digital Policy, Regulation and Governance, vol. 21 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2398-5038

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Book part
Publication date: 7 June 2019

John Hooker and Tae Wan Kim

Businesses are rapidly automating workplaces with new technologies (e.g., driverless cargo trucks, artificially intelligent mortgage approvals, machine-learning-based…

Abstract

Businesses are rapidly automating workplaces with new technologies (e.g., driverless cargo trucks, artificially intelligent mortgage approvals, machine-learning-based paralegals, algorithmic managers). Such technological advancement raises a host of questions for business and society. As Thomas Donaldson recently remarked, “It’s instance of a problem that more sophisticated engineering cannot solve, and that requires a more sophisticated approach to values” (Ufberg, 2017). In this chapter, we explore the value questions as follows: What is the purpose of business in the machine age? What model for business will best serve society in coming decades: profit maximization, stakeholder theory, or another conception entirely? Is it time for a new social contract between business and society? Do firms have a natural duty to offer employment? Are existing concepts of responsibility/liability adequate for an age in which companies use autonomous robots as scapegoats? How can we protect our humanity and dignity in an algorithm-based society? Do we need to teach ethics to robots?

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Article
Publication date: 10 September 2019

Yong Tang, Jason Xiong, Rafael Becerril-Arreola and Lakshmi Iyer

The purpose of this paper is fourfold: first, to provide the first systematic study on the ethics of blockchain, mapping its main socio-technical challenges in technology…

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Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is fourfold: first, to provide the first systematic study on the ethics of blockchain, mapping its main socio-technical challenges in technology and applications; second, to identify ethical issues of blockchain; third, to propose a conceptual framework of blockchain ethics study; fourth, to discuss ethical issues for stakeholders.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper employs literature research, research agenda and framework development.

Findings

Ethics of blockchain and its applications is essential for technology adoption. There is a void of research on blockchain ethics. The authors propose a first theoretical framework of blockchain ethics. Research agenda is proposed for future search. Finally, the authors recommend measures for stakeholders to facilitate the ethical adequacy of blockchain implementations and future Information Systems (IS) research directions. This research raises timely awareness and stimulates further debate on the ethics of blockchain in the IS community.

Originality/value

First, this work provides timely systematic research on blockchain ethics. Second, the authors propose the first research framework of blockchain ethics. Third, the authors identify key research questions of blockchain ethics. Fourth, this study contributes to the understanding of blockchain technology and its societal impacts.

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Article
Publication date: 12 February 2018

Mohammad Ali Beheshtinia, Amir Ghasemi and Moein Farokhnia

This study aims to propose a new genetic algorithm for solving supply chain scheduling and routing problem in a multi-site manufacturing system. The main research…

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to propose a new genetic algorithm for solving supply chain scheduling and routing problem in a multi-site manufacturing system. The main research question is: How is the production and transportation scheduled in a multi-site manufacturer? Also the sub-questions are: How is the order assigned to the suppliers? What is the production sequence of the assigned orders to a supplier? How is the order assignment to the vehicles? What are the vehicles routes to convey the orders from the suppliers to the manufacturing centers? The authors’ contributions in this paper are: integration of production scheduling and vehicle routing in multi-site manufacturing supply chain and proposing a new genetic algorithm inspired from the role model concept in sociology.

Design/methodology/approach

Considering shared transportation system in production scheduling of a multi-site manufacturer is investigated in this paper. Initially, a mathematical model for the problem is presented. Afterwards, a new genetic algorithm based on the reference group concept in sociology, named Reference Group Genetic Algorithm (RGGA) is introduced for solving the problem. The comparison between RGGA and a developed algorithm of literature closest problem, demonstrates a better performance of RGGA. This comparison is drawn based on many test problems. Moreover, the superiority of RGGA is certificated by comparing it to the optimum solution in the small size problems. Finally, the authors use real data collected from a drug manufacturer in Iran to test the performance of the algorithm. The results show the better performance of RGGA in comparison with obtained outputs from the real case.

Findings

The authors presented the mathematical model of the problem and introduced a new genetic algorithm based on the “reference group” concept in sociology. Robert K. Merton is a sociologist who presented the concept of reference groups in society. He believed that some people in each society such as heroes or entertainment artists affect other people. The proposed algorithm uses the reference group concept to the genetic algorithm, namely, RGGA. The comparison of the proposed algorithm with DGA and the optimum solution shows the superiority of RGGA. Finally, the authors implement the algorithm in a real case of drug manufacturing and the results show that the authors’ algorithm gives better outputs than obtained outputs from the real case.

Originality/value

One of the major objectives of supply chains is to create a competitive advantage for the final product. This intension is only achieved when each and every element of the supply chain considers customers’ needs in every function of theirs. This paper studies scheduling in the supply chain of a multi-site manufacturing system. It is assumed that some suppliers produce raw material or initial parts and convey them by a fleet of vehicles to a multi-site manufacturer.

Details

Journal of Modelling in Management, vol. 13 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1746-5664

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Book part
Publication date: 24 October 2019

Susan P. McGrath, Irina Perreard, Joshua Ramos, Krystal M. McGovern, Todd MacKenzie and George Blike

Failure to rescue events, or events involving preventable deaths from complications, are a significant contributor to inpatient mortality. While many interventions have…

Abstract

Failure to rescue events, or events involving preventable deaths from complications, are a significant contributor to inpatient mortality. While many interventions have been designed and implemented over several decades, this patient safety issue remains at the forefront of concern for most hospitals. In the first part of this study, the development and implementation of one type of highly studied and widely adopted rescue intervention, algorithm-based patient assessment tools, is examined. The analysis summarizes how a lack of systems-oriented approaches in the design and implementation of these tools has resulted in suboptimal understanding of patient risk of mortality and complications and the early recognition of patient deterioration. The gaps identified impact several critical aspects of excellent patient care, including information-sharing across care settings, support for the development of shared mental models within care teams, and access to timely and accurate patient information.

This chapter describes the use of several system-oriented design and implementation activities to establish design objectives, model clinical processes and workflows, and create an extensible information system model to maximize the benefits of patient state and risk assessment tools in the inpatient setting. A prototype based on the product of the design activities is discussed along with system-level considerations for implementation. This study also demonstrates the effectiveness and impact of applying systems design principles and practices to real-world clinical applications.

Details

Structural Approaches to Address Issues in Patient Safety
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-83867-085-6

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Article
Publication date: 2 December 2021

Khaldoon Al-Htaybat and Larissa von Alberti-Alhtaybat

The purpose of this study is to contribute an actor-network-theory (ANT) perspective of how algorithms are used and whether this reflects positively on organisational…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to contribute an actor-network-theory (ANT) perspective of how algorithms are used and whether this reflects positively on organisational practices and related perceptions of organisation performance, by both customers and employees. Furthermore, the organisation’s view of adopting algorithms to manage their performance is explored.

Design/methodology/approach

The current study is a study set in this virtual space, as it seeks to use data available online from different stakeholders of the case organisation. Online “virtual space” studies have become more common over the past few years. Primary and secondary data are shared online, for instance on relevant rating websites for customers (such as TrustPilot) and employees (such as Indeed), which serve as a reflection of the organisational performance and the communication of their values. This type of study has become more prevalent, either as a study undertaken online fully (Hine, 2007) or partially (for instance Baxter et al., 2019), which provides a different perspective to traditionally carried out face-to-face interactions.

Findings

The current study has contributed insights from a global case organisation in the logistics sector originating in the Middle East (ME). The case organisation clearly indicates that its algorithm, in line with particular presentations and discussions on online platforms, is focussed on analysing limited factors, which are prediction of accurate delivery timeslot, preferred and precise location for delivery and speed of delivery overall. This reflects an inherent bias of the delivery industry, which the case organisation operates in, and may focus attention on delivering on those objectives, with a detrimental effect on the organisation’s broader organisational mindset. This refers to long-term values and sustainability-related objectives.

Originality/value

Findings will reflect on whether algorithms can be used to align a multi-national organisation to achieve its desired performance and related desirable results. This will be one of the main contributions of the current study, which engages with a multi-national organisation in the logistics sector that is based in the ME region.

Details

Qualitative Research in Accounting & Management, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1176-6093

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Article
Publication date: 16 March 2020

Mehmet Konar

The purpose of this paper is to present a novel approach based on the artificial bee colony (ABC) algorithm aiming to achieve maximum acceleration and maximum endurance…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to present a novel approach based on the artificial bee colony (ABC) algorithm aiming to achieve maximum acceleration and maximum endurance for morphing unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) design.

Design/methodology/approach

Some of the most important issues in the design of UAV are the design of thrust system and determination of the endurance of the UAV. Although propeller selection is very important for the thrust system design, battery selection has the utmost importance for the determination of UAV endurance. In this study, the calculations of maximum acceleration and endurance required by ZANKA-II during the flight are considered simultaneously. For this purpose, a model based on the ABC algorithm is proposed for the morphing UAV design, aiming to achieve the maximum acceleration and endurance. In the proposed model, the propeller diameter, propeller pitch and battery values used in morphing UAV's power system design are selected as the input parameters; maximum acceleration and endurance are selected as the output parameters. To obtain the maximum acceleration and endurance, the optimum input parameters are determined through the ABC algorithm-based model.

Findings

Considerable improvements on maximum acceleration and endurance of morphing UAV with ABC algorithm-based model are obtained.

Research limitations/implications

The endurance and acceleration due to the thrust are two separate parameters that are not normally proportional to each other. In this study, optimization of UAV’s endurance and acceleration is considered with equal importance.

Practical implications

Using artificial intelligence techniques causes fast and simple optimization for determination of UAV’s endurance and acceleration with equal importance. In the simulation studies with ABC algorithm, satisfactory results are obtained.

Social implications

The results of the study have showed that the proposed approach could be an alternative method for UAV designers.

Originality/value

Providing a new and efficient method saves time and reduces cost in calculations of maximum acceleration and endurance of the UAV.

Details

Aircraft Engineering and Aerospace Technology, vol. 92 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1748-8842

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 25 August 2020

Aziz Kaba and Emre Kiyak

The purpose of this paper is to introduce an artificial bee colony-based Kalman filter algorithm along with an extended objective function to ensure the optimality of the…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to introduce an artificial bee colony-based Kalman filter algorithm along with an extended objective function to ensure the optimality of the estimator of the quadrotor in the presence of unknown measurement noise statistics.

Design/methodology/approach

Six degree-of-freedom mathematical model of the quadrotor is derived. Position controller for the quadrotor is designed. Kalman filter-based estimation algorithm is implemented in the sensor feedback loop. Artificial bee colony-based hybrid algorithm is used as an optimization method to handle the unknown noise statistics. Existing objective function is extended with a penalty term. Mathematical proof of the extended objective function is derived. Results of the proposed algorithm is compared with de facto genetic algorithm-based Kalman filter.

Findings

Artificial bee colony algorithm-based Kalman filter and extended objective function duo are able to optimize the measurement noise covariance matrix with an absolute error as low as 0.001 [m2]. Proposed method and function is capable of reducing the noise from 2 to 0.09 [m] for x-axis, 3.4 to 0.14 [m] for y-axis and 3.7 to 0.2 [m] for z-axis, respectively.

Originality/value

The motivation behind this paper is to bring a novel optimization-based solution for the estimation problem of the quadrotor when the measurement noise statistics are unknown along with an extended objective function to prevent the infeasible solutions with mathematical convergence analysis.

Details

Aircraft Engineering and Aerospace Technology, vol. 92 no. 10
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1748-8842

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Article
Publication date: 4 October 2011

Qian Bo, Zhang Lichao, Shi Yusheng and Liu Guocheng

In stereolithgraphy rapid prototyping, the support can constrain the model deformation and avoid a lot of problems such as collapse, shift, and imbalance of the model. The…

Abstract

Purpose

In stereolithgraphy rapid prototyping, the support can constrain the model deformation and avoid a lot of problems such as collapse, shift, and imbalance of the model. The support automatic generation algorithm has become the key research of rapid prototyping technics software; however, presently the efficiency of support automatic generation algorithm is low, and its algorithm is complex. Thus, it is of great importance in improving the overall efficiency of rapid prototyping technics software through enhancing the support generation efficiency. This paper aims to address these issues.

Design/methodology/approach

Based on this, this paper proposes a discrete‐marking support algorithm for treatment of processing on manufactured part model of all triangle‐based discrete‐marking on the support plane, which realizes the three‐dimensional computation of intersection for each line associated with the triangle automatically, and avoid invalid computation between all the support lines and other triangles.

Findings

The algorithm efficiency has reached O(n). Meanwhile, the technics support generation speed has been improved. Furthermore, the new mesh discrete‐marking and automatic support generation algorithm has been successfully applied to the sterolithography apparatus and selective laser melting of HRPS series.

Practical implications

Practical application indicates that the new support generation algorithm based on discrete‐marking considerably improves the support technics efficiency and stereolithgraphy rapid prototyping efficiency of the technics software.

Originality/value

The research presents a Noval support fast generation algorithm based on discrete‐marking in stereolithgraphy rapid prototyping.

Details

Rapid Prototyping Journal, vol. 17 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-2546

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Article
Publication date: 3 April 2017

Jia Liu and Kefan Xie

While scheduling and transporting emergency materials in disasters, the emergency materials and delivery vehicles are arriving at the distributing center constantly…

Abstract

Purpose

While scheduling and transporting emergency materials in disasters, the emergency materials and delivery vehicles are arriving at the distributing center constantly. Meanwhile, the information of the disaster reported to the government is updating continuously. Therefore, this paper aims to propose an approach to help the government make a transportation plan of vehicles in response to the disasters addressing the problem of material demand and vehicle amount continual alteration.

Design/methodology/approach

After elaborating the features and process of the emergency materials transportation, this paper proposes an emergency materials scheduling model in the case of material demand and vehicle amount continual alteration. To solve this model, the paper provides the vehicle transportation route allocation algorithm based on dynamic programming and the disaster area supply sequence self-learning algorithm based on ant colony optimization. Afterwards, the paper uses the model and the solution approach to computing the optimal transportation scheme of the food supply in Lushan earthquake in China.

Findings

The case study shows that the model and the solution approach proposed by this paper are valuable to make the emergency materials transportation scheme precise and efficient. The problem of material demand and vehicle amount changing continually during the process of the emergency materials transportation is solved promptly.

Originality/value

The model proposed by this paper improves the existing similar models in the following aspects: the model and the solution approach can not only solve the emergency materials transportation problem in the condition of varying demand and vehicle amount but also save much computing time; and the assumptions of this model are consistent with the actual situation of the emergency relief in disasters so that the model has a broad scope of application.

Details

Kybernetes, vol. 46 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0368-492X

Keywords

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