ONE of the most important tasks of present‐day aeroplane manufacture is the design of economical high‐speed commercial aeroplanes to provide regular and safe services.
THE high and economical cruising speed already mentioned depends on the aerodynamic “fineness” of the aeroplane (low drag, high airscrew efficiency) and on the horse‐power…
THE high and economical cruising speed already mentioned depends on the aerodynamic “fineness” of the aeroplane (low drag, high airscrew efficiency) and on the horse‐power per unit wing area.
Presents the scientific methodology from the enlarged cybernetical perspective that recognizes the anisotropy of time, the probabilistic character of natural laws, and the…
Presents the scientific methodology from the enlarged cybernetical perspective that recognizes the anisotropy of time, the probabilistic character of natural laws, and the entry that the incomplete determinism in Nature opens to the occurrence of innovation, growth, organization, teleology communication, control, contest and freedom. The new tier to the methodological edifice that cybernetics provides stands on the earlier tiers, which go back to the Ionians (c. 500 BC). However, the new insights reveal flaws in the earlier tiers, and their removal strengthens the entire edifice. The new concepts of teleological activity and contest allow the clear demarcation of the military sciences as those whose subject matter is teleological activity involving contest. The paramount question “what ought to be done”, outside the empirical realm, is embraced by the scientific methodology. It also embraces the cognitive sciences that ask how the human mind is able to discover, and how the sequence of discoveries might converge to a true description of reality.
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Studies are presented which demonstrate that: (1) irradiation of titanium and zinc oxide pigments produces singlet oxygen; (2) irradiation of titanium dioxide pigments in…
Studies are presented which demonstrate that: (1) irradiation of titanium and zinc oxide pigments produces singlet oxygen; (2) irradiation of titanium dioxide pigments in water yields, hydrogen peroxide; and (3) the formation of singlet oxygen and hydrogen peroxide correlates with chalking tendencies of the pigments. These findings, together with the results of quenching studies, are interpreted in terms of a working hypothesis, for the generation of reactive oxidants, which ties together previous work into a unified scheme. The relative chalking rates of anatase and rutile titanium dioxide as well as the improvement of chalk resistance by surface treatment, are discussed within the framework of this scheme. The role of singlet oxygen in the chalking process, the importance of its presence with regard to the control of chalking, and possible mechanisms for its formation are also discussed.
An appeal under the Food and Drugs Acts, reported in the present number of the BRITISH FOOD JOURNAL, is an apt illustration of the old saying, that a little knowledge is a dangerous thing. In commenting upon the case in question, the Pall Mall Gazette says: “The impression among the great unlearned that the watering of the morning's milk is a great joke is ineradicable; and there is also a common opinion among the Justice Shallows of the provincial bench that the grocer who tricks his customers into buying coffee which is 97 per cent. chicory is a clever practitioner, who ought to be allowed to make his way in the world untrammelled by legal obstructions. But the Queen's Bench have rapped the East Ham magistrates over the knuckles for convicting without fining a milkman who was prosecuted by the local authority, and the case has been sent back in order that these easygoing gentlemen may give logical effect to their convictions.”
Cybernetics and artificial intelligence are viewed primarily as being a major part of information science which is considered as we would any other scientific discipline. It is suggested that such a science must be capable of formalization. Language is considered as a major feature of science, where mathematics is a specialized part of language. The analysis of language in the form of semantics and pragmatics is regarded as essential to the understanding of any linguistic usage, particularly when some degree of precision is entailed. Discusses information science and its foundations in philosophy, logic and especially in semantics and pragmatics.
The paper aims to show the existence of the systemic yoyo structure in human thoughts so that the human way of thinking is proven to have the same structure as that of the…
The paper aims to show the existence of the systemic yoyo structure in human thoughts so that the human way of thinking is proven to have the same structure as that of the material world.
Parallel comparison is used to reveal the underlying structure existing in human thoughts.
After highlighting all the relevant ideas and concepts, which are behind each and every crisis in the foundations of mathematics, it becomes clear that some difficulties in the authors' understanding of nature are originated from confusing actual infinities with potential infinities, and vice versa. By pointing out the similarities and differences between these two kinds of infinities, then some hidden contradictions existing in the system of modern mathematics are handily picked out. Then, theoretically, using the authors' yoyo model, it is predicted that the fourth crisis in the foundations of mathematics has appeared. And, a plan of resolution of this new crisis is provided.
This paper shows the first time in history that human thought, the material world, and each economic entity, share a common structure – the systemic yoyo structure. And it proves the arrival of the fourth crisis in mathematics by using systems modeling and listing several; contradictions hidden deeply in the foundations of mathematics.