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This paper aims to survey the moral psychology of emoji, time-restricted messaging and other non-verbal elements of nominally textual computer-mediated communication…
This paper aims to survey the moral psychology of emoji, time-restricted messaging and other non-verbal elements of nominally textual computer-mediated communication (CMC). These features are increasingly common in interpersonal communication. Effects on both individual well-being and quality of intimate relationships are assessed. Results of this assessment are used to support ethical conclusions about these elements of digital communication.
Assessment of these non-verbal elements of CMC is framed in light of relevant literature from a variety of fields, including neuroscience, behavioral economics and social psychology. The resulting ethical analysis is informed by both Aristotelian and Buddhist virtue ethics.
This paper finds that emoji and other nonverbal elements of CMC have positive potential for individual well-being and interpersonal communication. They can be used to focus and direct attention, express and acknowledge difficult emotions and increase altruistic tendencies.
This paper is conceptual, extrapolating from existing literature to investigate possibilities rather than reporting on novel experiments. It is not intended to substitute for empirical research on use patterns and their effects. But by identifying positive potential, it can help both users and designers to support individual and relational well-being.
The positive effects identified here can be incorporated into both design and use strategies for CMC.
Situating ethical analysis of these trending technologies within literature from the social sciences on the effects of stylized faces, disappearing messages and directed attention can help us both understand their appeal to users and best practices for using them to enrich our social lives.
The paper uses empirically informed moral psychology to understand a deceptively trivial-looking phenomenon with wide-ranging impacts on human psychology and relationships.
The purpose of this paper is to explore the quality of social relationships of older Filipino church members by determining their perceptions of support and non-support in…
The purpose of this paper is to explore the quality of social relationships of older Filipino church members by determining their perceptions of support and non-support in their social network.
A qualitative research approach with semi-structured interviews was utilized. A purposive sample of six Filipino older adults (ages 60-89) were invited and agreed to participate in the study.
The themes found in the study confirmed the types of support outlined in social convoy theory. Several unique nuances in the types of support and non-support between the interactions of older adult Filipinos with people very close to them, somewhat close to them, and merely acquainted with them were identified. The themes of support include instrumental support, emotional care, social connectedness, and companionship during engagement in activities. Themes characterising lack of support include disrespect and lack of understanding, constraining one’s actions, helplessness in responding to the other’s needs, non-dependability and non-reliability, difficulty in maintaining social connections, making it difficult to play a desired or expected role.
The study’s limitations are the small sample size, the quality of support explored only through nominating two members of each level of closeness in the older adults’ social convoy, sample size adequacy to reach data saturation, and the lack of data on support reciprocity that may influence the respondents’ perceptions of support and non-support.
The findings of the paper point to possible interventions to improve social support for the older population. The road map for those interested in developing interventions should also put some emphasis on older adults’ needs in their continued societal engagement. Interventions may involve facilitating role transitions and providing social support systems attuned to the needs of the elderly.
The authors speculate that this lack of support experienced by the older adults relates to the loss of societal roles, especially as this relates to their identity, meaning, and changes in social interactions within their communities. It is therefore important that interventions be planned to provide structures for older adults’ transitions in their re-engagement in society and into the work-force, thereby reducing this sense of role ambiguity and providing them with more positive identities in their communities.
The results suggest another form of support distinct from the emotional and instrumental support elaborated in previous work. This support is identified as companionship from within the social network that allows older adults to sustain engagement in meaningful activities. The study’s results further suggest a lack of clarity in societal roles, i.e. a sense of role ambiguity, which older adults may experience in the transitioning from adulthood to later adulthood.
Claudia Patricia Rodas Avellaneda, María del Pilar Angarita Díaz, Luis Francisco Nemocon Ramírez, Luis Alexys Pinzón Castro, Yenny Tatiana Robayo Herrera, Ines Leonilde Rodriguez Baquero and Rocio del Pilar González Sanchez
The purpose of this paper is to design and to implement an oral health educational strategy that targeted an older population residing in three social protection centers…
The purpose of this paper is to design and to implement an oral health educational strategy that targeted an older population residing in three social protection centers (SPC) in Villavicencio, Colombia.
The first phase consisted in determining the oral health of older citizens in the SPC. To do this, the research group gathered patients’ personal information and indices. The second phase consisted in the development of an educational strategy based on the population’s requirements. The educational strategy, focusing on oral hygiene and denture care, was implemented for the older people and their caregivers. The third and final phase consisted in the research group measuring the effect of the designed strategy by repeating oral diagnoses for the older people six months after strategy implementation.
The results of the assessment indicated that implementing a strategy to strengthen oral hygiene care was positive, given that statistically significant reductions were observed in the soft plaque index and the Gingival Index (p<0.05).
As a result of the complexity of the population, the data obtained after the strategy was implemented were significantly reduced. However, these results indicate that an educational strategy can have an effect on this type of population.
Implementing a strategy that promotes oral hygiene education and brushing skills, fosters good oral behavior and helps the older people in SPC to remember the information taught, thus contributing to their oral hygiene.
Entrepreneurship; tourism and hospitality.
Junior or senior-level business students as well as graduate-level (MBA and/or EMBA) classes in entrepreneurship, small business management, strategic management, international business or international economics.
Cuban tour guides working for the communist Castro Government dream of working for themselves or leaving for the USA. Their story is contrasted by a visit to Cuba as told by a US business professor.
Expected learning outcomes
To compare entrepreneurship under capitalism that is slowly relaxing their communistic rules, to learn more about the island of Cuba and its potential for tourism and new venture creation, to understand the legal, social, political, historical and cultural barriers to entrepreneurship, to hypothesize or brainstorm potential new ventures for Cuba.
Teaching notes; photos also available upon request from the author.
Perspectives on gender, gender expression, sexuality identity, and sexual orientation differ within and between generations given the great extent to which these concepts…
Perspectives on gender, gender expression, sexuality identity, and sexual orientation differ within and between generations given the great extent to which these concepts are embedded within social, cultural, and historical context. Across contexts, questions of authenticity are critical. This research compares generational perspectives about authenticity, gender and gender-related constructs, and sexuality. Through semi-structured interviews with a nonprobability, purposive sample of heterosexual and LGBTQ younger (aged 18–22) and older (aged 65+) adults, how a sense of authenticity is experienced and the degree to which individuals experience authenticity around sexual and gender identities are compared. Data were analyzed using the constant comparison method of analysis, and results indicate that while younger adult respondents held expansive terminology and knowledge related to sexual and gender identities, older adult participants lacked such fluidity, and that lack was an inhibiting factor in older adults being able to name and embody their authentic sexual selves. In conclusion, both position in one’s life course (age) and one’s generational cohort (historical, cultural, and social context) influence how individuals experience authenticity around gender and sexual identities.
The measuring of emergency readmission rates to hospital following discharge is one of fifteen health outcomes the United Kingdom government monitors on an annual basis…
The measuring of emergency readmission rates to hospital following discharge is one of fifteen health outcomes the United Kingdom government monitors on an annual basis. There is a wide variation between readmission rates, and it is especially important to older people that there is a reduction in unacceptable variations. A closer understanding of reasons for readmission is therefore necessary to inform future developments, identify patients who may be at high risk of readmission and target resources more appropriately. A review of literature from the United Kingdom and international studies may help in determining the reasons for the unplanned readmission of older people. This could then allow for a re‐allocation of resources in the most cost‐effective and cost‐efficient manner. The literature review was conducted via keywords and combination of keyword searches from 1990‐2003 using various electronic databases. There were several themes that emerged from the literature, and these have been described within the paper. Following the review of the literature it emerged that many international studies into the causes of readmission of older people have an inconsistent approach in defining certain terms. However, in the United Kingdom, there appears a more consistent approach. Most studies agree that the majority of readmissions occur as a result of a relapse or complication of an initial illness. However, some American studies associate the readmission of older people with a specific disease, and the antecedent care process. The findings in the literature have identified several gaps that enable recommendations for future research to be made.
Older adults are at risk for developing metabolic syndrome (MSX). Given the growing rural older adult population and the unknown prevalence rate of MSX in rural…
Older adults are at risk for developing metabolic syndrome (MSX). Given the growing rural older adult population and the unknown prevalence rate of MSX in rural communities, the purpose of this paper is to assess the risk factors for MSX among rural elders.
Individuals aged 55+ from four West Alabama rural communities were assessed by an interdisciplinary healthcare team via a mobile unit (n=216). Descriptive analyses and analysis of variances (ANOVA) were conducted to assess the effect of gender, race and community on the number of risk factors of MSX among rural elders.
Results of a three-way ANOVA revealed a significant interaction between gender, age and community on the number of MSX risk factors [F (16,193)= 2.41, p <0.01]. Rural communities with lower social economic status (SES) and predominantly African American residents were at higher risk for developing MSX compared to communities with higher SES [F(3, 68) = 7.42, p<0.05].
Findings suggest low SES rural communities are at risk of developing MSX. Innovative approaches such as mobile healthcare delivery are crucial to providing quality healthcare and preventive health screens to underserved rural older adult communities.
Limited research is available on assessing rural midlife and older adults at risk for metabolic syndrome largely due to lack of communication or transportation infrastructure and their history of negative experiences with public institutions. This research demonstrates that these barriers can be addressed.
Purpose – A study of amateur gourmet chefs was conducted in order to expand our understanding of consumer resistance, and to theorize the relationship between culture…
Purpose – A study of amateur gourmet chefs was conducted in order to expand our understanding of consumer resistance, and to theorize the relationship between culture, consumer culture, and material culture.
Methodology/approach – A semi-structured long interview approach was employed, so that the interviewees could relate their experience of cooking in their own terms. The methodology was inspired by the existential–phenomenological tradition in consumer research.
Findings – All eschewed participation in the market for cookware. They contend that “real” cooks value utility over all, and question the aestheticization, fetishization, and mass marketing of cookware to a general audience. Their responses reveal the role of culture, knowledge, information, socialization, and market structure on consumer values and beliefs, thereby bringing into question the concept of consumer agency.
Research limitations/implications – The interviews were conducted in only one geographic location and cultural milieu. Future research should examine these concepts in additional contexts.
Practical implications – The analysis reveals the basis of effective consumer resistance. In order to resist, consumers must reject citizenship in consumer culture and reconceive their political subjectivity. That said, such an approach only has emancipatory potential at the level of the individual. The interviews underscore the need for a continued critique of the operation of power in the market.
Originality/value of paper – Most of the extant literature focuses on cultural practices that have formed in response to practices within mainstream consumer culture. The cooks interviewed argued that their practice is rooted in traditions that precede consumer culture.