By tradition, sensors are used to measure one desired parameter; all other parameters influencing the sensor are considered as interfering inputs, to be eliminated if possible. Hence most of existing sensors are specifically intended for measuring one parameter, e.g. temperature, and the ideal temperature sensor should be as immune to all other parameters as possible. True, we sometimes use primitive sensor fusion, e.g. when calculating heat flow by combining separate measurements of temperature difference and of fluid flow.
Worker classification continues to be a highly litigated area of taxation. That is, the status of a worker as an employee or independent contractor remains a topic closely…
Worker classification continues to be a highly litigated area of taxation. That is, the status of a worker as an employee or independent contractor remains a topic closely scrutinized by the Internal Revenue Service. This study examines factors that the judiciary deems relevant in ruling whether a worker is an employee or independent contractor. A backward stepwise logistic regression model is implemented to categorize the factors that best predict the court’s decision on whether a worker is either an employee or independent contractor pursuant to the factors in Revenue Ruling 87-41 (1987-1 CB 296), judge gender, and political affiliation. The results indicate three factors (supervision/instructions, continuing relationship, and the right to discharge) are capable of accurately predicting 93 percent of the decisions made by the US Tax Court. Other findings support notable statistical differences between male and female judges rendering decisions and reaching conclusions. Also, there is a statistically significant difference based on the type of industry. Political affiliation appears to have no significant impact on judicial rulings.
The objectives of the study, which focuses on reproductive health care services, are to identify factors that impede adequate access to care for migrant women and to…
The objectives of the study, which focuses on reproductive health care services, are to identify factors that impede adequate access to care for migrant women and to identify possible solutions.
In this case study, problem‐based, semi‐structured individual interviews were conducted with 12 migrant women, eight staff members of non‐governmental organizations (NGOs), and eight staff members of a public hospital (physicians, nurses). The transcripts were analyzed using a grounded thematic approach.
Problems in access to services were identified in four areas: accessibility/information; institutional infrastructure; language barriers; and cultural competences.
There is a need to develop culture‐specific understanding of health amongst service providers working in public hospitals. It is also necessary to raise awareness of traditional beliefs and behavior of migrant women to maximize good quality care. A closer collaboration of hospitals and NGOs is recommended, not least in order to ensure the demand‐ and needs‐orientation, appropriateness, effectiveness, and efficiency of health care for migrant women. Migrant women mentioned different approaches to delivering care – these solutions should, where possible, be applied in practice.
The study correlates and supports knowledge from existing literature regarding possible barriers to the use of health care services by women with migrant backgrounds. Recommendations for overcoming existing barriers are also identified by research participants.
Pew and Mavor (1998) called for an integrative representation of human behavior for use in models of individual combatants and organizations. Models with integrated representation of behavior have only been achieved at rudimentary levels according to those performing the studies (e.g. Pew & Mavor, 1998; Tulving, 2002) and those building the models (e.g. Warwick et al., 2002). This chapter will address aspects of cognitive performance that are important to incorporate into models of combat based on acceptance of theory, strength of empirical data, or for other reasons such as to bridge gaps where incomplete knowledge exists about cognitive behavior and performance. As a starting point, this chapter will assess which of Pew and Mavor’s recommendations are still appropriate as determined by a review of selected literature on cognition and its representation. We will also provide some review and extensions of key literature on cognition and modeling and suggest a way ahead to close the remaining gaps. Different aspects of cognition are described with recent findings, and most are followed by an example of how they have been represented in computer models or a discussion of challenges to their representation in modeling.