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Book part
Publication date: 8 March 2018

Michael Alles, Gerard Brennan, Alexander Kogan and Miklos A. Vasarhelyi

In this paper we report on the approach we have developed and the lessons we have learned in an implementation of the monitoring and control layer for continuous…

Abstract

In this paper we report on the approach we have developed and the lessons we have learned in an implementation of the monitoring and control layer for continuous monitoring of business process controls (CMBPC) in the US internal IT audit department of Siemens Corporation. The architecture developed by us implements a completely independent CMBPC system running on top of Siemens’ own enterprise information system which has read-only interaction with the application tier of the enterprise system. Among our key conclusions is that “formalizability” of audit procedures and audit judgment is grossly underestimated. Additionally, while cost savings and expedience force the implementation to closely follow the existing and approved internal audit program, a certain level of reengineering of audit processes is inevitable due to the necessity to separate formalizable and non-formalizable parts of the program. Our study identifies the management of audit alarms and the prevention of the alarm floods as critical tasks in the CMBPC implementation process. We develop an approach to solving these problems utilizing the hierarchical structure of alarms and the role-based approach to assigning alarm destinations. We also discuss the content of the audit trail of CMBPC.

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Book part
Publication date: 8 March 2018

Michael G. Alles, Alexander Kogan and Miklos A. Vasarhelyi

In the almost twenty years since Vasarhelyi and Halper (1991) reported on their pioneering implementation of what has come to be known as Continuous Auditing (CA), the…

Abstract

In the almost twenty years since Vasarhelyi and Halper (1991) reported on their pioneering implementation of what has come to be known as Continuous Auditing (CA), the concept has increasingly moved from theory into practice. A 2006 survey by PricewaterhouseCoopers shows that half of all responding firms use some sort of CA techniques, and the majority of the rest plan to do so in the near future. CA not only has an increasing impact on auditing practice, but is also one of the rare instances in which such a significant change was led by the researchers. In this paper we survey the state of CA after two decades of research into continuous auditing theory and practice, and draw out the lessons learned by us in recent pilot CA projects at two major firms, to examine where this unique partnership between academics and auditors will take CA in the future.

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Continuous Auditing
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78743-413-4

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Book part
Publication date: 8 March 2018

Miklos A. Vasarhelyi, Michael G. Alles and Alexander Kogan

The advent of new enabling technologies and the surge in corporate scandals has combined to increase the supply, the demand, and the development of enabling technologies…

Abstract

The advent of new enabling technologies and the surge in corporate scandals has combined to increase the supply, the demand, and the development of enabling technologies for a new system of continuous assurance and measurement. This paper positions continuous assurance (CA) as a methodology for the analytic monitoring of corporate business processes, taking advantage of the automation and integration of business processes brought about by information technologies. Continuous analytic monitoring-based assurance will change the objectives, timing, processes, tools, and outcomes of the assurance process.

The objectives of assurance will expand to encompass a wide set of qualitative and quantitative management reports. The nature of this assurance will be closer to supervisory activities and will involve intensive interchange with more of the firm s stakeholders than just its shareholders. The timing of the audit process will be very close to the event, automated, and will conform to the natural life cycle of the underlying business processes. The processes of assurance will change dramatically to being meta-supervisory in nature, intrusive with the potential of process interruption, and focusing on very different forms of evidential matter than the traditional audit. The tools of the audit will expand considerably with the emergence of major forms of new auditing methods relying heavily on an integrated set of automated information technology (IT) and analytical tools. These will include automatic confirmations (confirmatory extranets), control tags (transparent tagging) tools, continuity equations, and time-series cross-sectional analytics. Finally, the outcomes of the continuous assurance process will entail an expanded set of assurances, evergreen opinions, some future assurances, some improvement on control processes (through incorporating CA tests), and some improved data integrity.

A continuous audit is a methodology that enables independent auditors to provide written assurance on a subject matter, for which an entity’s management is responsible, using a series of auditors’ reports issued virtually simultaneously with, or a short period of time after, the occurrence of events underlying the subject matter.

  • CICA/AICPA Research Study on Continuous Auditing (1999)

CICA/AICPA Research Study on Continuous Auditing (1999)

Companies must disclose certain information on a current basis.

  • Corporate and Auditing Accountability, Responsibility, and Transparency (Sarbanes-Oxley) Act (2002)

Corporate and Auditing Accountability, Responsibility, and Transparency (Sarbanes-Oxley) Act (2002)

Details

Continuous Auditing
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78743-413-4

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Book part
Publication date: 14 August 2014

Kathryn Connors, Dean V. Coonrod, Patricia Habak, Stephanie Ayers and Flavio Marsiglia

This chapter examines birth outcomes of patients enrolled in Familias Sanas (Healthy Families), an educational intervention designed to reduce health disadvantages of…

Abstract

Purpose

This chapter examines birth outcomes of patients enrolled in Familias Sanas (Healthy Families), an educational intervention designed to reduce health disadvantages of low-income, immigrant Latina mothers by providing social support during and after pregnancy.

Methodology/approach

Using a randomized control-group design, the project recruited 440 pregnant Latina women, 88% of whom were first generation. Birth outcomes were collected through medical charts and analyzed using regression analysis to evaluate if there were any differences between patients enrolled in Familias Sanas compared to those patients who followed a typical prenatal course.

Findings

Control and intervention groups were found to be similar with regard to demographic characteristics. In addition, we did not observe a decrease in rate of a number of common pregnancy-related complications. Likewise, rates of operative delivery were similar between the two groups as were fetal weight at delivery and use of regional anesthesia at delivery.

Research limitations/implications

The lack of improvements in birth outcomes for this study was perhaps because this social support intervention was not significant enough to override long-standing stressors such as socioeconomic status, poor nutrition, genetics, and other environmental stressors.

Originality/value of chapter

This study was set in an inner-city, urban hospital with a large percentage of patients being of Hispanic descent. The study itself is a randomized controlled clinical trial, and data were collected directly from electronic medical records by physicians.

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Social Determinants, Health Disparities and Linkages to Health and Health Care
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78190-588-3

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Book part
Publication date: 8 March 2018

Alexander Kogan, Ephraim F. Sudit and Miklos A. Vasarhelyi

The progressive computerization of business processes and widespread availability of computer networking make it possible to dramatically increase the frequency of…

Abstract

The progressive computerization of business processes and widespread availability of computer networking make it possible to dramatically increase the frequency of periodic audits by redesigning the auditing architecture around Continuous Online Auditing (COA). Continuous auditing is viewed here as a type of auditing that produces audit results simultaneously with, or a short period of time after, the occurrence of relevant events. It is arguable that continuous auditing can be implemented only as an online system, i.e., a system that is permanently connected through computer networking to both auditees and auditors. This article proposes a research agenda for the emerging field of COA. First, the history, institutional background, feasibility of and some experiences in COA are briefly reviewed. Thereafter, a number of research issues relating to the architecture of COA, factors affecting the use of COA, and the major consequences of COA are presented. Finally, a selected number of research issues are highlighted as priorities for future research in COA.

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Book part
Publication date: 8 March 2018

Michael G. Alles, Alexander Kogan and Miklos A. Vasarhelyi

Given the growing interest in the topic, both in practice and academia, it is timely and important to examine the concept of continuous assurance (CA) and the possible…

Abstract

Summary

Given the growing interest in the topic, both in practice and academia, it is timely and important to examine the concept of continuous assurance (CA) and the possible paths along which such services will evolve. There has been a tendency to see CA purely from the point of view of its technological enablers. As such, it has virtually been taken for granted that CA will follow as a matter of course. What has been less thought through is the business architecture that must underlie CA. In particular, we show that the key driver of CA is the demand for it. While there may be many economic transactions between the company and its stakeholders that could benefit from the provision of CA, there is no guarantee that CA is either cost effective—the only way of enhancing efficiency—or actually has to be continuous. Other factors that will affect the development of CA are the need for a new infrastructure to pay for it, as well as concerns about the independence of the assurors. We also identify some important research issues.

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Book part
Publication date: 30 July 2018

Abstract

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Marketing Management in Turkey
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78714-558-0

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Book part
Publication date: 24 September 2010

Vicki Dryfhout

Blacks are more likely than white, in the United States, to experience a stillbirth. In this study, I use a structural perspective of race to create a heuristic model that…

Abstract

Blacks are more likely than white, in the United States, to experience a stillbirth. In this study, I use a structural perspective of race to create a heuristic model that combines medical and social epidemiological explanations to understand the racial disparity in stillbirths. Using data from the National Maternal and Infant Health Survey 1988 (NMIHS), I examine whether racial disparities in stillbirths can be explained by medical and social epidemiological variables. My findings show that medical and social epidemiological explanations do little to reduce the racial disparity. However, many medical model variables were important predictors of stillbirths including multiple gestations, being overweight, obesity, vaginal bleeding, advanced maternal age, and parity.

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The Impact of Demographics on Health and Health Care: Race, Ethnicity and Other Social Factors
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-84950-715-8

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Book part
Publication date: 30 July 2018

Özgecan Karanci

Market research and insight generation is the art of unifying relevant pieces of information when formulating the solution to a puzzle. The present chapter contributes to…

Abstract

Market research and insight generation is the art of unifying relevant pieces of information when formulating the solution to a puzzle. The present chapter contributes to the market research industry and the literature on research methods by providing a detailed snapshot of the current state of the industry in Turkey, as an emerging market, together with the future outlook. The comprehensive review in convergence with expert precepts elucidates the transformation of the industry. In the last decade, the world has witnessed a digital revolution that has affected the way in which research is conducted, and the identity of the storyteller. The consumer is the principal actor, and researchers assume the roles of co-creators and curators who are responsible for combining different forms of data. The new roles have changed the perception of the term market research and have generated new labels to denote business in the digital era. From the study, conclusions can also be drawn regarding the impact of technology and new methods upon research designs. New technologies are inspirational; they raise the industry to a higher level and allow researchers spend their time, energy and resources on the interpretation of data rather than on the gathering process. Consequently, the role of the researcher is to understand people, and hence the eternal principles of marketing research remain valid even in this new era. Professionals are expected to be courageous in their decisions and to be agile leaders who will be active participants in the transformation process of the discipline.

Details

Marketing Management in Turkey
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78714-558-0

Keywords

Content available
Book part
Publication date: 8 March 2018

Abstract

Details

Continuous Auditing
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78743-413-4

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