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Article
Publication date: 3 April 2017

Lerzan Aksoy, Timothy L. Keiningham, Alexander Buoye and Joan Ball

The purpose of this paper is to identify the key drivers of share of wallet for credit cards issued by either a credit union (CU) or bank using a Wallet Allocation Rule…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to identify the key drivers of share of wallet for credit cards issued by either a credit union (CU) or bank using a Wallet Allocation Rule (WAR) framework.

Design/methodology/approach

A survey approach engaging 1,649 current CU members at nine CUs regarding their use of 3,487 different credit cards is employed. Binary logistic regression is used to discriminate when CU issued vs bank issued credit cards are perceived to be “best” by their owners.

Findings

This research indicates the key drivers differ significantly when CU members prefer a CU-issued credit card vs a bank-issued credit card. For example, CU-issued credit cards are attractive to some CU members because of prior relationships with the CU and offering lower interest rates on revolving balances. By contrast, customers who choose a bank-issued credit card are much more likely to be driven by the rewards offered on the card.

Practical implications

Using the WAR key driver approach, managers can identify differentiating attributes that influence customers’ perceptions of their rank vis-à-vis competition and thereby grow share.

Originality/value

This research provides a significant contribution to both the banking literature and the scientific literature by examining the robustness of a relative metrics approach within the retail banking and CU market. It represents the first empirical analysis of a WAR key driver approach in the scientific literature.

Details

International Journal of Bank Marketing, vol. 35 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0265-2323

Keywords

Content available
Article
Publication date: 24 July 2020

Anu Helkkula, Alexander John Buoye, Hyeyoon Choi, Min Kyung Lee, Stephanie Q. Liu and Timothy Lee Keiningham

The purpose of this investigation is to gain insight into parents' perceptions of benefits vs burdens (value) of educational and healthcare service received for their…

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1598

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this investigation is to gain insight into parents' perceptions of benefits vs burdens (value) of educational and healthcare service received for their child with ASD. Parents are the main integrators of long-term educational and healthcare service for their child with ASD.

Design/methodology/approach

Design/methodology/approach included (1) a sentiment analysis of discussion forum posts from an autism message board using a rule-based sentiment analysis tool that is specifically attuned to sentiments expressed in social media and (2) a qualitative content analysis of one-on-one interviews with parents of children diagnosed with ASD, complemented with interviews with experienced educators and clinicians.

Findings

Findings reveal the link between customized service integration and long-term benefits. Both parents and service providers emphasize the need to integrate healthcare and educational service to create holistic long-term care for a child with ASD. Parents highlight the benefits of varied services, but availability or cost are burdens if the service is not publicly provided, or covered by insurance. Service providers' lack of experience with ASD and people's ignorance of the challenges of ASD are burdens.

Practical implications

Ensuring health outcomes for a child with ASD requires an integrated service system and long-term, customer-centric service process because the scope of service covers the child's entire childhood. Customized educational and healthcare service must be allocated and budgeted early in order to reach the goal of a satisfactory service output for each child.

Originality/value

This is the first service research to focus on parents' challenges with obtaining services for their child with ASD. This paper provides service researchers and managers insight into parents' perceptions of educational and healthcare service value (i.e. benefits vs. burdens) received for their child with ASD. These insights into customer-centric perceptions of value may be useful to research and may help service providers to innovate and provide integrated service directly to parents, or indirectly to service providers, who serve children with ASD.

Details

Journal of Service Management, vol. 31 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1757-5818

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Article
Publication date: 24 February 2020

Alexander Buoye, Arne De Keyser, Zeyang Gong and Natalie Lao

The purpose of this paper is to look into the topic of IP category extensions in an entertainment setting. The main goal of the study is to explore the reciprocal…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to look into the topic of IP category extensions in an entertainment setting. The main goal of the study is to explore the reciprocal spillover effect of customer experience (CX) ratings with an intellectual property (IP) in one medium (i.e. film) on the sales of the same IP in other media (i.e. comic books).

Design/methodology/approach

The study is based on 21-years of monthly top 300 comic book direct market sales data linked to the release schedule and domestic box office gross figures for films featuring Marvel and DC comic book IP appearing in the weekly top 50 films over the same time period. The analysis is based on a hierarchical linear (i.e. mixed) model to account for the nested structure of the data.

Findings

The analysis reveals that CX ratings of weekly top 50 films featuring comic book IP have a quadratic relationship with comic book sales by the two major publishers. Films receiving very good but not excellent ratings are associated with the highest levels of incremental comic book sales.

Research limitations/implications

The model is based on sales of periodical comic books in the direct market only (i.e. specialty shops) and does not account for sales of digital comics or collected editions through other channels. The analysis is also limited to IP for the two major publishers (Marvel and DC comics).

Originality/value

This study expands current knowledge on CX spillover effects between different media, contributing to entertainment and CX-literature alike.

Details

Journal of Services Marketing, vol. 34 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0887-6045

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 10 April 2017

Timothy Keiningham, Joan Ball, Sabine Benoit (née Moeller), Helen L. Bruce, Alexander Buoye, Julija Dzenkovska, Linda Nasr, Yi-Chun Ou and Mohamed Zaki

This research aims to better understand customer experience, as it relates to customer commitment and provides a framework for future research into the intersection of…

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5093

Abstract

Purpose

This research aims to better understand customer experience, as it relates to customer commitment and provides a framework for future research into the intersection of these emerging streams of research.

Design/methodology/approach

This research contributes to theoretical and practical perspectives on customer experience and its measurement by integrating extant literature with customer commitment and customer satisfaction literature.

Findings

The breadth of the domains that encompass customer experience – cognitive, emotional, physical, sensorial and social – makes simplistic metrics impossible for gauging the entirety of customers’ experiences. These findings provide strong support of the need for new research into customer experience and customer commitment.

Practical implications

Given the complexity of customer experience, managers are unlikely to track and manage all relevant elements of the concept. This research provides a framework identifying empirically the most salient attributes of customer experience with particular emphasis on those elements that enhance commitment. This offers insight into service design to correspond with specific commitment and experience dimensions.

Originality/value

This research is the first to examine the customer experience as it relates to customer commitment – a key factor in customer loyalty, positive word of mouth and other desired outcomes for managers and marketers. This paper provides a framework for future research into these emerging topics.

Details

Journal of Services Marketing, vol. 31 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0887-6045

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Article
Publication date: 19 August 2019

Edward C. Malthouse, Alexander Buoye, Nathaniel Line, Dahlia El-Manstrly, Tarik Dogru and Jay Kandampully

The purpose of this paper is to assess the role of platforms in diffusing data value across multiple stakeholders.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to assess the role of platforms in diffusing data value across multiple stakeholders.

Design/methodology/approach

Seminal theoretical and managerial work has been critically examined in order to justify the need for improving/extending the contemporary understanding of the data value creation process.

Findings

The results suggest that existing frameworks and conceptualizations of reciprocal data value provide incomplete understanding of the role of platforms in data value diffusion.

Research limitations/implications

This paper provides service researchers with a better understanding of the role of platforms in data value diffusion. Future research can develop and validate new frameworks that reflect the proposed extended/improved view of data value creation.

Practical implications

Service and hospitality managers will be able to more effectively manage the role of platforms in data value diffusion. Specifically, this paper proposes that, in order for data to become a source of competitive advantage, there must be a symbiotic relationship among all the stakeholders of the data ecosystem.

Originality/value

The authors discuss how data creates value for different stakeholders in the hospitality industry.

Details

Journal of Service Management, vol. 30 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1757-5818

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 17 March 2016

Alexander John Buoye

Absolute satisfaction ratings are widely used, but demonstrate a poor link to share of wallet, in part because this relationship is mediated and/or moderated by customer…

Abstract

Purpose

Absolute satisfaction ratings are widely used, but demonstrate a poor link to share of wallet, in part because this relationship is mediated and/or moderated by customer characteristics (including total spend in the category) and heterogeneity of scale usage. Relative satisfaction metrics, such as the Wallet Allocation Rule, have been shown to produce a much stronger link to share of wallet than absolute monadic ratings. This study compares absolute and relative satisfaction models after controlling for these mediating and moderating factors and re-examines the impact of these factors when using relative, rather than absolute metrics.

Design/methodology/approach

3,793 satisfaction ratings by 1,172 unique grocery customers across 5 countries (US, Brazil, Chile, France & Germany) are used to evaluate the mediating and moderating impacts of scale usage and customer characteristics on the relationship between satisfaction and share of wallet.

Findings

Relative metrics continue to significantly outperform absolute metrics after controlling for these factors. With the exception of the moderating influence of income, effects of customer characteristics and country differences are insignificant when linking relative satisfaction to share of wallet.

Practical implications

Managers need to re-evaluate their satisfaction measurement strategy in order to establish a strong link to actual behavior. While calculating relative satisfaction requires managers to collect data on competitors as well as the focal brand, this need for additional information is mitigated by a trade-off in terms of mediating and moderating information that is essential to properly model absolute metrics, but is not needed when using relative measures.

Originality/value

Provides a significant contribution to both retail literature and scientific literature in general by examining the robustness of a relative metrics approach within the grocery retail sector across a disparate collection of countries.

Details

Journal of Service Theory and Practice, vol. 26 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2055-6225

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Book part
Publication date: 2 August 2001

Daniel J. Myers and Alexander J. Buoye

A common tactic in the analysis of the racial civil disorders of the 1960s has been to eliminate from data sets those events that occurred on university and college…

Abstract

A common tactic in the analysis of the racial civil disorders of the 1960s has been to eliminate from data sets those events that occurred on university and college campuses. This procedure assumed a disjuncture between urban and campus collective violence, specifically in that the former would be related to local economic and social conditions and the latter would not. As a result, campus racial riots have not been well represented in the research on the rioting of the 1960s and their place in, and contribution to, the riot wave are not well understood. Contrary to earlier assumptions, our analysis shows a strong connection between campuses and their local context. First, campuses having stronger ties to local communities had higher rates of racial disorder during 1967–1969. Second, economic competition indicators for the local community influenced campus rioting, just as they influenced inner-city rioting. We conclude by discussing the implications of omitting campus events from past riot research.

Details

Political Opportunities Social Movements, and Democratization
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-76230-786-9

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Article
Publication date: 15 August 2016

Alexander Buoye, Yuliya Komarova Loureiro, Sertan Kabadayi, Mohammad G. Nejad, Timothy L. Keiningham, Lerzan Aksoy and Jason Allsopp

The satisfaction and loyalty research argues that customer satisfaction is an antecedent to share of wallet (SOW). The double jeopardy view, however, argues that…

Abstract

Purpose

The satisfaction and loyalty research argues that customer satisfaction is an antecedent to share of wallet (SOW). The double jeopardy view, however, argues that satisfaction and SOW levels are driven exclusively by penetration levels. Customer satisfaction and penetration, however, are not always positively related. The purpose of this paper is to explore the relevance and validity of these two divergent perspectives to creating growth in customer share of spending.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors examine a series of models evaluating the impact of both the relative penetration of a brand, and the satisfaction ratings of its customers on SOW using data covering 11 industry sectors, 188 brands, and 4,263 customers.

Findings

The authors find that part of the problem in reconciling these two views has been in how satisfaction is measured and analyzed. When using absolute satisfaction ratings of the firm/brand, the explanatory power of satisfaction on SOW is very weak at both the individual and firm level. When using satisfaction metrics relative to other competing brands, however, satisfaction is a strong predictor of customers’ share of category spending.

Research limitations/implications

As predicted by double jeopardy, penetration is a strong predictor of firm-level SOW, but has almost no explanatory power at the individual level.

Practical implications

Managers need to focus on both improving penetration/reach and becoming the preferred brand in a customer’s usage set.

Originality/value

The research examines if (and if yes, how) satisfaction and penetration contribute to customers’ SOW allocations both at the individual and brand level.

Details

Journal of Service Management, vol. 27 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1757-5818

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Article
Publication date: 10 June 2014

Timothy L. Keiningham, Lerzan Aksoy, Edward C. Malthouse, Bart Lariviere and Alexander Buoye

The purpose of this paper is to propose a theoretical model for how consumers aggregate satisfaction with individual service encounters to form a summary evaluation of…

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1273

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to propose a theoretical model for how consumers aggregate satisfaction with individual service encounters to form a summary evaluation of satisfaction, and further examines its effect on customers’ share of category spending (share of wallet (SOW)).

Design/methodology/approach

The data used consist of 10,983 completed surveys from 1,448 customers whose transaction-specific satisfaction with a retailer and their subsequent purchase behaviors in the category were tracked for more than four transactions. Mixed effects models were employed to test the relationship between the cumulative effect of satisfaction with multiple service encounters on SOW.

Findings

Cumulative satisfaction is a weighted average of satisfaction with specific encounters, with weights decaying geometrically so that more recent encounters receive more weight. More recent transaction-specific satisfaction levels tend to have greater influence on customers’ next purchase SOW allocations; this, however, is only the case for customers who are less than highly satisfied, with a rating of 8 or lower on a ten-point scale. Additionally, the impact of transaction-specific satisfaction on SOW is not linear. Highly positive transaction-specific satisfaction levels have a greater impact on SOW than negative levels.

Practical implications

Many companies monitor satisfaction across multiple service encounters. This study shows how one can aggregate these measures to arrive at a cumulative effect, and highlights the importance to discriminate between first, more and less recent encounters and second, low vs high levels of satisfaction to better understand customers’ spending among different providers.

Originality/value

Using a longitudinal data set with real customers, this paper identifies a new measure for taking into account the cumulative satisfaction, identifies the positivity bias, and shows how recency affects the relationship between satisfaction and SOW.

Details

Journal of Service Management, vol. 25 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1757-5818

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 16 March 2015

Timothy Lee Keiningham, Bruce Cooil, Edward C Malthouse, Bart Lariviere, Alexander Buoye, Lerzan Aksoy and Arne De Keyser

There is general agreement among researchers and practitioners that satisfaction is relative to competitive alternatives. Nonetheless, researchers and managers have not…

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2972

Abstract

Purpose

There is general agreement among researchers and practitioners that satisfaction is relative to competitive alternatives. Nonetheless, researchers and managers have not treated satisfaction as a relative construct. The result has been weak relationships between satisfaction and share of wallet in the literature, and challenges by managers as to whether satisfaction is a useful predictor of customer behavior and business outcomes. The purpose of this paper is to explore the best approach for linking satisfaction to share of wallet.

Design/methodology/approach

Using data from 79,543 consumers who provided 258,743 observations regarding the brands that they use (over 650 brands) covering 20 industries from 15 countries, various models such as the Wallet Allocation Rule (WAR), Zipf-AE, and Zipf-PM, truncated geometric model, generalization of the WAR and hierarchical regression models are compared to each other.

Findings

The results indicate that the relationship between satisfaction and share of wallet is primarily driven by the relative fulfillment customers perceive from the various brands that they use (as gauged by their relative ranked satisfaction level), and not the absolute level of satisfaction.

Practical implications

The findings provide practical insight into several easy-to-use approaches that researchers and managers can apply to improve the strength of the relationship between satisfaction and share of wallet.

Originality/value

This research provides support to the small number of studies that point to the superiority of using relative metrics, and encourages the adoption of relative satisfaction metrics by the academic community.

Details

Journal of Service Management, vol. 26 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1757-5818

Keywords

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