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Book part
Publication date: 20 October 2011

Graham Currie

Abstract

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New Perspectives and Methods in Transport and Social Exclusion Research
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78-052200-5

Book part
Publication date: 20 October 2011

Alexa Delbosc and Graham Currie

Purpose — In this chapter, a series of disaggregated analyses are undertaken to better understand the component nature of transport disadvantage, its variation across…

Abstract

Purpose — In this chapter, a series of disaggregated analyses are undertaken to better understand the component nature of transport disadvantage, its variation across geographic locations and its impact on specific social groups. The first section describes the process used to form the four sub-scales of transport disadvantage used in section 5.1.4.1 of Chapter 5.1. The second section compares the transport characteristics experienced in four geographic areas: inner urban, outer urban and fringe Melbourne and regional Victoria.

Methodology — Self-reported transport disadvantage is disaggregated into four factors using confirmatory factor analysis (CFA). The characteristics of these four factors and the differences between geographic locations are compared in tabular form with t-tests and chi-square analyses used to assess statistical significance. Some correlation analyses are also used.

Findings — Transport disadvantage characteristics that make people vulnerable/impaired or rely on others have the greatest impacts on well-being. The strongest relationships between transport disadvantage and well-being are experienced in regional and fringe urban areas.

Details

New Perspectives and Methods in Transport and Social Exclusion Research
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78-052200-5

Book part
Publication date: 20 October 2011

Graham Currie and Alexa Delbosc

Purpose — This chapter presents an overview of the data collection methodology and context for the project as a whole. The aim is to assist the reader in understanding the…

Abstract

Purpose — This chapter presents an overview of the data collection methodology and context for the project as a whole. The aim is to assist the reader in understanding the overall study methodology components and how they fit together. It describes the case study areas of Melbourne and the Latrobe Council of Victoria, Australia. It then describes some initial analyses of secondary data that set the framework for the project. It concludes by describing the field survey used to collect primary data in the study areas. Two different recruitment methods were used and are described.

Details

New Perspectives and Methods in Transport and Social Exclusion Research
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78-052200-5

Book part
Publication date: 20 October 2011

Graham Currie and Alexa Delbosc

Purpose — This chapter provides an overview of the sampling outcomes of the field surveys. This includes a description of the samples from the VISTA Follow-On survey and…

Abstract

Purpose — This chapter provides an overview of the sampling outcomes of the field surveys. This includes a description of the samples from the VISTA Follow-On survey and the Special survey covering both Metropolitan Melbourne and the Latrobe Regional Samples. Analysis includes an assessment of the coverage of the samples plus a discussion of the rationale and outcomes for improved sample coverage from the Special survey.

Methodology — The methodology adopted concerns the quantitative statistical analysis of survey sample coverage and cross tabulation of these findings from statistics on the population being sampled.

Findings — The Vista Follow-On survey approach was an effective means of targeting households for survey and also reduced the number of questions required. However, the resulting sample had low coverage of extremely disadvantaged groups. An adjustment to the survey quotas and a new recruitment method termed the Special survey were implemented to address this issue. This proved effective in obtaining a more balanced sample.

Details

New Perspectives and Methods in Transport and Social Exclusion Research
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78-052200-5

Book part
Publication date: 20 October 2011

Graham Currie and Alexa Delbosc

Purpose — This chapter provides an overview of contemporary perspectives on transport disadvantage. Definitions of transport disadvantage from the literature are brought…

Abstract

Purpose — This chapter provides an overview of contemporary perspectives on transport disadvantage. Definitions of transport disadvantage from the literature are brought together and differing frameworks are discussed. The chapter also examines research topics concerning forced car ownership and coping behaviours related to transport disadvantage.

Methodology — Methodology concerns the review of existing research literature.

Findings — Transport disadvantage is a complex, multidimensional construct brought about by the interaction between land use patterns, the transport system and individual circumstances. Although the majority of literature focuses on transport disadvantage imposed by not owning a car, research into ‘forced’ car ownership suggests that the high costs of owning and running a car can impose transport disadvantage through financial stress. Using alternative modes to the car, getting lifts or restricting travel and access are common coping strategies to deal with transport disadvantage.

Details

New Perspectives and Methods in Transport and Social Exclusion Research
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78-052200-5

Book part
Publication date: 20 October 2011

Graham Currie and Alexa Delbosc

Purpose — This chapter presents the methods used to explore transport issues in the study questionnaire. It outlines how transport disadvantage was measured and how…

Abstract

Purpose — This chapter presents the methods used to explore transport issues in the study questionnaire. It outlines how transport disadvantage was measured and how transport issues such as forced car ownership, coping strategies, residential location choice and fuel price impacts are explored.

Methodology — The focus of the chapter is methodology description rather than analysis. Questionnaire design is the major method adopted. Much of this is based on previous approaches documented in the research literature.

Findings — Both objective (e.g. trip rates) and subjective methods (self-reported access problems) are used to measure transport disadvantage. The latter included exploring a series of possible problems with travel. A quadrant analysis measuring both the importance and the level of difficult respondents had with aspects of travel was adopted to explore transport disadvantage in more depth. Transport disadvantage was also explored with regard to difficulties in accessing activities due to transport problems. A range of other questions were developed to explore issues of low/zero-car ownership, forced car ownership, coping strategies, residential location choice and fuel price impacts.

Details

New Perspectives and Methods in Transport and Social Exclusion Research
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78-052200-5

Book part
Publication date: 20 October 2011

Dianne A. Vella-Brodrick and Alexa Delbosc

Purpose — In this chapter a case will be made for the importance of measuring well-being in transport mobility research. A number of well-being measures and determinants…

Abstract

Purpose — In this chapter a case will be made for the importance of measuring well-being in transport mobility research. A number of well-being measures and determinants of well-being will be presented in reference to the current project. This chapter will then conclude with some practical recommendations for transport mobility researchers wishing to include well-being measures in their future studies.

Methodology — Measurement methods associated with previous transport mobility and well-being research will be critically examined so that strengths and limitations can be identified. The measurement approach to well-being adopted for the current project will be presented and associated challenges experienced by the research team will then be discussed.

Findings — A review of the extant transport mobility research which includes an assessment of well-being shows that it is not uncommon for unstandardised measures of well-being to be adopted. In addition, exploration of relationships between transport mobility and well-being are often undertaken without any consideration of potential moderating or mediating factors. More work is needed to advance our knowledge of the transport mobility and well-being relationship and the underlying mechanisms driving this relationship. Research also needs to focus on undertaking longitudinal studies which will enable causation to be established.

Details

New Perspectives and Methods in Transport and Social Exclusion Research
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78-052200-5

Book part
Publication date: 20 October 2011

Alexa Delbosc and Graham Currie

Purpose — This chapter describes the process used to empirically link the concepts of transport disadvantage, social exclusion and well-being. It fills three important…

Abstract

Purpose — This chapter describes the process used to empirically link the concepts of transport disadvantage, social exclusion and well-being. It fills three important gaps in the research literature: (1) the empirical limitations in measuring the relationship between transport disadvantage and social exclusion, (2) the somewhat homogenous groups used in most studies of social exclusion and (3) the lack of integration with measures of well-being.

Methodology — Structural equation modelling (SEM) is a statistical methodology that examines the underlying structural relationship between variables and displays these relationships pictorially. The methods used to define and measure transport disadvantage, social exclusion and well-being are described. SEM uses principal component analyses to isolate underlying ‘latent’ variables (e.g. social exclusion) using measurable ‘observed’ variables (e.g. income, being employed or not). Regression techniques are then used to examine the structural relationships between these three variables.

Findings — Modelling of the hypothesised relationships between the three variables showed a good statistical fit. The link between transport disadvantage and social exclusions was of a medium–small size (0.28) and statistically significant. Social exclusion had a larger and statistically significant negative impact on well-being (−0.73). Transport disadvantage also had a small but direct negative impact on well-being (−0.15).

Details

New Perspectives and Methods in Transport and Social Exclusion Research
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78-052200-5

Book part
Publication date: 20 October 2011

Graham Currie and Alexa Delbosc

Purpose — This chapter overviews the field survey results. It includes simple tabulations of transport-related survey results, analysis of transport problems, the impact…

Abstract

Purpose — This chapter overviews the field survey results. It includes simple tabulations of transport-related survey results, analysis of transport problems, the impact of fuel price increases, home location decisions, forced car ownership (FCO) analysis and coping strategies with low/zero-car ownership. Some preliminary analysis is undertaken of realised trip rates and correlations of elements of the survey results.

Methodology — Methodology concerns the quantitative statistical analysis of survey findings including some simple correlation tests.

Findings — Over half the sample faced difficulty accessing activities because of transport problems. Between 1 and 10% identified activities they cannot do because of transport problems (a higher share in Latrobe).

Nearly half had changed travel habits because of petrol price increases most commonly increasing the activities completed on each trip (trip linking). Affordability was the most important reason for home location. A quarter of those who helped decide where to live now wish they had considered other factors most commonly living closer to public transport. FCO households agreed that transport costs were high and used a diverse range of strategies to reduce costs. A high majority said their choices were limited; however, many also liked the mobility and home location choices they had made.

Results also show a strong positive link between income, employment, car ownership and mobility. Social exclusion and well-being have a negative correlation at a high level of statistical significance.

Details

New Perspectives and Methods in Transport and Social Exclusion Research
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78-052200-5

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