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Article
Publication date: 20 August 2019

Maneebongkot Chaumaroeng and Alessio Panza

The purpose of this paper is to describe the prevalence and factors associated with safe sex behavior among vocational students in Nakhon Ratchasima Province, Thailand…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to describe the prevalence and factors associated with safe sex behavior among vocational students in Nakhon Ratchasima Province, Thailand, and to determine the modifying factors listed as socio-demographic characteristic, the level of HIV and sexually transmitted infections’ knowledge, attitude toward reproductive health, and safe sex behavior among vocational students in Nakhon Ratchasima Province, Thailand.

Design/methodology/approach

A cross-sectional descriptive research was conducted from August to October 2018. The multistage stratified sampling, combined with purpose and random sampling, was used to select the participants. One vocational college with the highest number from urban, suburban and rural areas was purposely selected. The sample calculation by using Cochran’s formula, a random sampling by drawing from each college with male and female, was made to obtain the sample size of 355 students. Inclusion criteria included: vocational students, both male and female, aged between 15 and 19 years, resided in the study area, and volunteered to participate. Ethical consent including waiver of the parent’s consent for the participant aged under 18 years for this study was approved by the Institution Review Board for Human Research Ethics, Chulalongkorn University (Certification number JV 823/2561) A self-administered questionnaire was adapted by the principle researcher from the illustrative questionnaire for interview survey with young people (14), and The study of Prevalence of HIV, STD, Drug Use and Risk Behaviors in Adolescents and Young Adults, in Chaing Rai, Thailand (PRAYA) tool (15). All statistical analyses were performed by SPSS version 22.

Findings

The finding revealed that 332 participants were male (57.8 percent) and female (42.2 percent) with an average age of 16.8 years (±1.7). Approximately 60 percent of males and 50 percent of females had experience of sexual intercourse, with their first experience of sexual intercourse at the average age of 15. Most respondents 63.1 percent used a condom and 63.6 percent used contraception in their latest sexual intercourse. About 41.9 percent consumed alcohol and 15 percent reported substance abused. Sexual intercourse among adolescents vocational students were significantly associated with high knowledge of contraception (OR=0.30, 95%CI=0.10–0.82). Positive attitude toward reproductive health had a significant association with sexual intercourse (OR=0.17, 95%CI=0.05–0.58). Sexual intercourse among vocational students were also significant associated with low risk behavior (OR=0.45, 95%CI=0.22–0.91) and high risk behaviors (OR=0.24, 95% CI=0.10–0.59). Contraceptive used in the latest sexual intercourse had a significant association with cues to action (OR=0.43, 95% CI=0.22–0.86).

Research limitations/implications

This study used a self-reported questionnaire to collect information from participants about safe sex behaviors, which might contain bias data and socially desirable answers. The time for collecting data did not match vocational students’ schedule as they were about to have their final exams. An error in this questionnaire was the absence of condom use as one of the contraception methods.

Practical implications

The study showed that both male and female vocational students in Nakhon Ratchasima have a low level of knowledge of HIV, STIs and contraception. This study revealed that females have higher knowledge of all the factors more than males. Males usually received more harassment from peers for being sexually active than females do. Condoms and contraceptive used are inconsistent in all research conducted and have no common ground. Communication related to sex for those who have no partner was poor compared to students who have a partner. The four factors associated with safe sex behaviors should always be considered and surveyed among vocational students, as the study showed that all results vary for a future adolescence study.

Social implications

This research aims at government authorities. The policy makers should include reproductive health and rights in the curriculum. The Ministry of Public health and The Ministry of Education should provide training for the trainer program for teachers concerning safe sex behaviors. For future research, in-depth interview and qualitative study should be used to increase the reliability of the result of the inconsistency of using a condom and contraception. The researcher should do further studies into vocational college semester schedules before collecting data and should spend more time in the college, so the students become more acquainted to the researcher and give a more truthful answer. Moreover, condom use should be added as one of the contraception methods.

Originality/value

This is the first study among vocational students in Nakhon Ratchasima Province which emphasizes specifically on safe sex behaviors and factors related to it. Regarding the population of vocational students, this study covers almost 80 percent of the population. Sensitive questions for sexual activity status and sexually history were answered by a self-administered questionnaire in order to increase sincere answers on their experiences because participants were not shy to disclose their sexual experiences.

Details

Journal of Health Research, vol. 34 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2586-940X

Keywords

Content available
Article
Publication date: 20 December 2017

Murallitharan Munisamy, Tharini Thanapalan, Pattaraporn Piwong, Alessio Panza and Sathirakorn Pongpanich

Out-of-pocket (OOP) payments continue to be a major method of financing healthcare in many low- and middle-income countries including Malaysia. Although macro-level data…

Abstract

Purpose

Out-of-pocket (OOP) payments continue to be a major method of financing healthcare in many low- and middle-income countries including Malaysia. Although macro-level data show that this is a substantial percentage of national health expenditure, at the grassroots level, the amount spent on health by households remains unknown in Malaysia. The purpose of this paper is to assess the validity and reliability of an adapted-for-purpose questionnaire designed to capture urban household health expenditures (HHEs) among Malaysian households.

Design/methodology/approach

This two-part study assessed content validity of the questionnaire using three experts and the reliability of the questionnaire through a test-retest study among 50 OOP-paying patients followed up at one private primary care clinic in Kuala Lumpur. This study was approved by the Malaysian Research Ethics Committee (NMRR-16-172-29311-IIR).

Findings

The validity of the 83-item questionnaire was high, with an item content validity index of 1.00 and a scale content validity index average score of 1.0 agreed to among the evaluating experts. In the test-retest reliability study, the majority of the categorical questionnaire items had perfect agreement values (k=0.81-1.00). Continuous questionnaire items were also found to be highly reliable with no significant differences between the test-retest segments and high correlation coefficient values (intra-class correlation coefficient>0.7).

Originality/value

The HHE questionnaire had excellent content validity and very high test-retest reliability. The results of this study suggest that this questionnaire could be used in Malaysian studies to determine actual urban HHE which is a first step toward developing universal health coverage for all.

Details

Journal of Health Research, vol. 32 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2586-940X

Keywords

Content available
Article
Publication date: 10 July 2018

Fauzia Akhter Huda, Anisuddin Ahmed, Hassan R. Mahmood, Faisal Ahmmed, Alessio Panza and Ratana Somrongthong

The purpose of this paper is to assess the effect of delaying first pregnancy in reducing burden of unintended pregnancy (UP) among married adolescent girls in urban slums…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to assess the effect of delaying first pregnancy in reducing burden of unintended pregnancy (UP) among married adolescent girls in urban slums of Bangladesh.

Design/methodology/approach

This cross-sectional survey was conducted among 783 married adolescents in five urban slums of Bangladesh during January 2013–January 2014.

Findings

Half of the respondents’ first pregnancy was reported as unintended. Of the respondents, 58 percent with no school education had experienced UP which was 38 percent among respondents with eight year’s education. Respondents who did not willingly agreed to their marriage experienced more UP (61 percent) than those who were agreed/got married by their own choice (51 percent). Respondents having five years of age difference with their husbands experienced more UP (58 percent) than those with ten years of age difference (46 percent). Respondents aged 14 years at first conception experienced 63 percent UP, while the respondents aged 18 years had 35 percent UP experience. Of the respondents, 66 percent who became pregnant within one year of marriage reported their pregnancy as unintended which was 29 percent among those who delayed their first pregnancy for three years.

Originality/value

Significant association was observed between pregnancy intention with respondents’ educational status (p=0.03), age difference with husbands (p=0.02), age at first conception (p<0.01) and delaying first pregnancy (p<0.001).

Details

Journal of Health Research, vol. 32 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2586-940X

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Article
Publication date: 1 January 2006

Denis H. Camilleri

To provide data on the tsunami hazard of the Mediterranean region, to outline the Maltese Islands specific tsunami risks.

Abstract

Purpose

To provide data on the tsunami hazard of the Mediterranean region, to outline the Maltese Islands specific tsunami risks.

Design/methodology/approach

The physics of tsunami and the tsunami magnitude scales are first introduced. The Mediterranean tsunami characteristics are introduced by reference to sources (1962‐2003). Following this the Mediterranean tsunami vulnerability assessment is undertaken. This then narrows down to assessing the Maltese tsunami hazards with reference to various newspaper articles, with finally a risk assessment for Malta tsunami exposure calculated.

Findings

Considering the high loss of life occurring in the Indian Ocean catastrophic tsunami, tsunami awareness hazards are to be kept ongoing whilst Malta should form part of an expected European Tsunami Warning System.

Practical implications

Planning is to consider various options available including tsunami barriers, evacuation paths, buildings with vertical evacuation facilities. It would be more prudent to work with nature by moving all inessential structures further into the interior and to protect the shoreline with suitable vegetation.

Originality/value

Creates a Mediterranean/Maltese awareness to tsunami hazards/risks in a highly developed tourist region.

Details

Disaster Prevention and Management: An International Journal, vol. 15 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0965-3562

Keywords

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