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Article
Publication date: 7 April 2021

Ganesh Rupchand Gawale and Naga Srinivasulu G.

Homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) engine is an advanced combustion method to use alternate fuel with higher fuel economy and, reduce NOX and soot emissions…

Abstract

Purpose

Homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) engine is an advanced combustion method to use alternate fuel with higher fuel economy and, reduce NOX and soot emissions. This paper aims to investigate the influence of ethanol fraction (ethanol plus gasoline) on dual fuel HCCI engine performance.

Design/methodology/approach

In this study, the existing CI engine is modified into dual fuel HCCI engine by attaching the carburetor to the inlet manifold for the supply of ethanol blend (E40/E60/E80/E100). The mixture of ethanol blend and the air is ignited by diesel through a fuel injector into the combustion chamber at the end of the compression stroke. The experiments are conducted for high load conditions on the engine i.e. 2.8 kW and 3.5 kW maximum output power for 1,500 constant rpm.

Findings

It is noticed from the experimental results that, with an increase of ethanol in the blends, ignition delay (ID) increases and the start of combustion is retarded. It is noticed that E100 shows the highest ID and low in-cylinder pressure; however, E40 shows the lowest ID compared to higher fractions of ethanol blends. An increase in ethanol proportion reduces NOX and smoke opacity but, HC and CO emissions increase compared to pure diesel mode engine. E100 plus diesel dual-fuel HCCI engine shows the highest brake thermal efficiency compared to remaining ethanol blends and baseline diesel engine.

Originality/value

This experimental study concluded that E100 plus diesel and E80 plus diesel gave optimum dual fuel HCCI engine performance for 2.8 kW and 3.5 kW rated power, respectively.

Details

World Journal of Engineering, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1708-5284

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 1 December 1990

Ion Deposition Ltd of Corby, who operate the largest service in Europe for the Ivadizing process of vacuum deposition of aluminium, have now built up a second specialist…

Abstract

Ion Deposition Ltd of Corby, who operate the largest service in Europe for the Ivadizing process of vacuum deposition of aluminium, have now built up a second specialist coating service. This is the application of an aluminium/Teflon coating process.

Details

Aircraft Engineering and Aerospace Technology, vol. 62 no. 12
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0002-2667

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Article
Publication date: 1 August 2004

Terry Wallace

Although the influential group located at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology have argued that “teamwork” is at the heart of the lean factory; more recent works have…

Abstract

Although the influential group located at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology have argued that “teamwork” is at the heart of the lean factory; more recent works have identified “innovation” as the major driver “of growth in free market economies”. Others have gone further in suggesting that the global business environment has so fundamentally changed that it is the demands of the knowledge economy that are the crucial challenge to global organisations. They identify “tomorrow's winners” as those organisations able to “search out and mobilize untapped pockets of technology and market intelligence” to add significant value to their operations. In this paper two of these “global practices” are analyzed in terms of the management of their introduction at the Curitiba plant of Volvo do Brazil. First, the development of team‐based forms of work organization is analyzed within the context of the changing nature of patterns of global human resource development. Secondly, the increasing utilization of lean production techniques is located within the context of the development of a global production strategy within the Volvo Truck Company. This paper attempts an understanding of the nature of the relationship between team‐based forms of work and lean production within a framework which recognizes the increasing importance of organisations attached to innovation – in the sense of a hybrid system of learning from the best practice of other organisations. In doing so it will assess how far we can claim the presence of a new production paradigm being developed within the plant.

Details

International Journal of Operations & Production Management, vol. 24 no. 8
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0144-3577

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Article
Publication date: 11 July 2016

Marta Aurelia Horianski, Juan Manuel Peralta and Luis Alberto Brumovsky

The purpose of this study was to analyze the influence of epichlorohydrin (ECH) concentration and reaction time on the food-grade resistant starch production and its…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study was to analyze the influence of epichlorohydrin (ECH) concentration and reaction time on the food-grade resistant starch production and its pasting properties by using native cassava starch of Misiones-Argentina origin.

Design/methodology/approach

Cassava starch was modified using ECH (0.30 and 0.15 per cent) during 4 or 8 h. Digestibility was evaluated by determining resistant starch as total dietary fiber. Pasting properties and the cross-linking degree were studied using a micro-viscoamylograph (Brabender).

Findings

Resistant starch content was not influenced by ECH concentration and reaction time. Cross-linking was detected at higher reaction times (8 h) and ECH concentrations (0.30 per cent), where a decrease in viscosity peaks by more than 80 per cent was observed. Both pasting temperature and breakdown were increased, whereas a decrease in retrogradation was detected.

Practical implications

Starches can be suitable for different food applications. This is because of the ability to modify its pasting properties and the invariability of the in vitro digestibility of cassava starch as a result of using ECH (at concentrations approved by local and regional legislation) and reaction times of 4 and 8 h.

Originality/value

Information related to the modification of cassava starch using ECH is scarce or not available nowadays in literature.

Details

Nutrition & Food Science, vol. 46 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0034-6659

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 1 April 2001

Tim Lawrence, Ian Wilding and Balvinder Chowdhary

This paper outlines the current position of water based no‐clean liquid fluxes for wave soldering. The primary differences between these and “traditional” alcohol based

Abstract

This paper outlines the current position of water based no‐clean liquid fluxes for wave soldering. The primary differences between these and “traditional” alcohol based liquid fluxes are explored using wetting balance methods. Reduced wetting capability (of the flux onto the PCB) can be addressed by using various surfactant additives; improved solderability is due to enhanced acid activator dissociation resulting from increased solvent polarity. Regarding implementation in a production environment, there is only minor impact. A slightly increased preheat capability is required, and foam application demands tight control of the feed gas flow rate. More generally, in addition to the “headline” environmental benefit of reduced VOC emissions, water based liquid fluxes confer significant handling advantages, for example zero flammability and low odour/evaporation at room temperature. Against this background, it is suggested that water based liquid fluxes will become ever more popular.

Details

Soldering & Surface Mount Technology, vol. 13 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0954-0911

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Article
Publication date: 1 October 1980

Mike Hoffman

So supplies of fossil fuel will soon run dry. No one can put a date on when it will happen but it will certainly be in the foreseeable future. What then? Maybe engines…

Abstract

So supplies of fossil fuel will soon run dry. No one can put a date on when it will happen but it will certainly be in the foreseeable future. What then? Maybe engines running on peanut, sunflower or corn oil or on a fuel derived from soya beans, eucalyptus trees or coal. All are possibilities, but no single one can provide the universal answer to the world's fuel problems. “Industrial Management” invited comments from Perkins, a world leader in the design, development and manufacture of diesel engines.

Details

Industrial Management & Data Systems, vol. 80 no. 12
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0263-5577

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Article
Publication date: 1 October 2018

Danar Susilo Wijayanto, Nugroho Agung Pambudi, Yusuf Wijaya, Ngatou Rohman and Husin Bugis

The purpose of this paper is to experimentally investigate the effect of biodiesel fuel blending and heating on engine torque and power.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to experimentally investigate the effect of biodiesel fuel blending and heating on engine torque and power.

Design/methodology/approach

To obtain torque and power data, a 1200 AWD dynamometer was used. The 1200 AWD dynamometer is a device used to obtain readings, and is made up of a chassis, inertia roller, roller sensor and converter modules, and can also be connected to a personal computer.

Findings

The result revealed that biodiesel blending and heating significantly affected torque and power. When only biodiesel blend ratio was varied, the highest torque and power were obtained at 30 per cent fuel blending. Also, the highest torque and power were obtained at 20 mm when only a spaced finned tube heater was used. When both variables were combined, the highest torque was obtained at a 20 per cent biodiesel blend and a 10 mm radial radiator finned spacing. Maximum power for two variables was obtained at the 20 per cent blend ratio and 20 mm finned tube heater spacing.

Originality/value

A novel radial finned tube heater is used.

Details

World Journal of Engineering, vol. 15 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1708-5284

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 2 October 2019

Hariram Venkatesan, Joshua Lionel Fernandes and Seralathan Sivamani

Compression ignition engines are being used in transportation, agricultural and industrial sectors due to its durability, fuel economy and higher efficiency. This paper…

Abstract

Purpose

Compression ignition engines are being used in transportation, agricultural and industrial sectors due to its durability, fuel economy and higher efficiency. This paper aims to present investigation focuses on the utilization of nano additives in emulsified blends of Pongamia biodiesel and its impact on combustion, emission and performance characteristics of a diesel engine.

Design/methodology/approach

Pongamia biodiesel was produced through two-stage transesterification process. Taguchi method with L9 Design of experiment was adopted to study the stability of fuel blends and 75 per cent diesel, 20 per cent biodiesel, 5 per cent water and 6 per cent of surfactant was found to be stable. Further, aluminum oxide nanoparticle was blended into the emulsified fuel in mass fraction of 100 ppm (D75-BD20-W5-S6-AO100) through ultrasonicating technique.

Findings

Oleic acid was found to be in prominent proportion in the Pongamia biodiesel. It was observed that D75-BD20-W5-S6 and D75-BD20-W5-S6-AO100 had the ability to produce lower in-cylinder pressure and rate of heat release compared to D100, B100 and D75-BD20 fuel blends. However, a higher rate of pressure rise was noticed in D75-BD20-W5-S6 and D75-BD20-W5-S6-AO100. Lower brake specific fuel consumption and relatively higher brake thermal efficiency were noticed in D75-BD20-W5-S6 and D75-BD20-W5-S6-AO100. Moreover, lower NOx and smoke emission were also observed for nano-emulsified fuel blends.

Originality/value

Metal-based nano-additive significantly improved the physio-chemical properties of the fuel. Based on the literature, it is understood that emulsified biodiesel blend with nano enrichment using Pongamia biodiesel as base fuel was not carried out. Identifying a stable blend of diesel-biodiesel-water-nano additive using Taguchi’s design of experiments approach was an added value in formulating the test fuels. Furthermore, the formulated test fuel was compared with mineral diesel, biodiesel, and diesel-biodiesel blend to understand its suitability to use as a fuel in compression ignition (CI) engine.

Details

World Journal of Engineering, vol. 16 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1708-5284

Keywords

Content available
Article
Publication date: 26 January 2021

Behnam Malmir and Christopher W. Zobel

When a large-scale outbreak such as the COVID-19 pandemic happens, organizations that are responsible for delivering relief may face a lack of both provisions and human…

Abstract

Purpose

When a large-scale outbreak such as the COVID-19 pandemic happens, organizations that are responsible for delivering relief may face a lack of both provisions and human resources. Governments are the primary source for the humanitarian supplies required during such a crisis; however, coordination with humanitarian NGOs in handling such pandemics is a vital form of public-private partnership (PPP). Aid organizations have to consider not only the total degree of demand satisfaction in such cases but also the obligation that relief goods such as medicine and foods should be distributed as equitably as possible within the affected areas (AAs).

Design/methodology/approach

Given the challenges of acquiring real data associated with procuring relief items during the COVID-19 outbreak, a comprehensive simulation-based plan is used to generate 243 small, medium and large-sized problems with uncertain demand, and these problems are solved to optimality using GAMS. Finally, post-optimality analyses are conducted, and some useful managerial insights are presented.

Findings

The results imply that given a reasonable measure of deprivation costs, it can be important for managers to focus less on the logistical costs of delivering resources and more on the value associated with quickly and effectively reducing the overall suffering of the affected individuals. It is also important for managers to recognize that even though deprivation costs and transportation costs are both increasing as the time horizon increases, the actual growth rate of the deprivation costs decreases over time.

Originality/value

In this paper, a novel mathematical model is presented to minimize the total costs of delivering humanitarian aid for pandemic relief. With a focus on sustainability of operations, the model incorporates total transportation and delivery costs, the cost of utilizing the transportation fleet (transportation mode cost), and equity and deprivation costs. Taking social costs such as deprivation and equity costs into account, in addition to other important classic cost terms, enables managers to organize the best possible response when such outbreaks happen.

Details

Journal of Humanitarian Logistics and Supply Chain Management, vol. 11 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2042-6747

Keywords

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Book part
Publication date: 30 November 2020

Victoria Marshall and Chris Goddard

In this chapter, the authors focus on a range of Australian news articles selected for their relevance to key themes in the area of child abuse and examine two high…

Abstract

In this chapter, the authors focus on a range of Australian news articles selected for their relevance to key themes in the area of child abuse and examine two high profile cases of child abuse deaths that were extensively reported on by the media and led to system reform. Challenges for media reporting on child abuse in Australia including a changing media landscape, lack of available child abuse data and lack of publicly available serious case reviews are discussed. The authors argue that there is a need for attention to be paid to children's resistance and agency in the context of violence and abuse to counter the objectification of children and uphold their rights. Following Finkelhor (2008), the authors argue that media reporting on child abuse in Australia reflects a general approach to child abuse that is fragmented, with different types of abuse viewed as separate from one another, and call for a more integrated understanding of child abuse. The authors highlight the complexity of media responses to child abuse in Australia, noting that while the social problem of child abuse can be misrepresented by the media, media reporting has also triggered significant systemic reform and advocated for children in cases where other systems failed them.

Details

Gendered Domestic Violence and Abuse in Popular Culture
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-83867-781-7

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