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The purpose of this paper is to estimate the domestic agriculture’s contribution to food security in the case of missing imports of food and feed to the food supplies of…
The purpose of this paper is to estimate the domestic agriculture’s contribution to food security in the case of missing imports of food and feed to the food supplies of the country.
This paper uses the Decision Support System for food Security Strategy and Supply Management (DSS-ESSA) to simulate whether a country with as low a level of self-sufficiency (around 60 per cent) as Switzerland would theoretically be capable of supplying its own population with a sufficient quantity of domestically produced food. The authors try to estimate the short-term and long-term impacts of the missing imports of food and feed on the energy supply in Switzerland.
Findings are summarised as follows. Starting with the long-term impact, the results show that in the long-term an energy supply of 2,340 kcal/person/day would be possible if the appropriate available cultivated area and optimised production existed. However, in the short-time, the potential and the time required to adapt and expand agricultural production depends primarily on the crop-rotation land available and on the existing infrastructure.
In the present version of DSS-ESSA no economic and environmental module has been integrated.
The current model version has been funded by the Swiss Federal Office for Agriculture and aims at supporting Swiss policy-makers to guide changes. Numerous additional data such as technical production contexts are regularly checked by experts.
This paper first reviews the history of social insurance policy and coverage in urban China, documenting the evolution in the coverage of pensions, medical and…
This paper first reviews the history of social insurance policy and coverage in urban China, documenting the evolution in the coverage of pensions, medical and unemployment insurance for both local residents and migrants, and highlighting obstacles to expanding coverage. The paper then uses two waves of the China Urban Labor Survey, conducted in 2005 and 2010, to examine the correlates of social insurance participation before and after implementation of the 2008 Labor Contract Law. A higher labor tax wedge is associated with a lower probability that local employed residents participate in social insurance programs, but is not associated with participation of wage-earning migrants, who are more likely to be dissuaded by fragmentation of the social insurance system. The existing gender gap in social insurance coverage is explained by differences in coverage across industrial sectors and firm ownership classes in which men and women work.
The economic reform started in 1978 progressively pushed China into one of the largest market-oriented economies in the world. The reform also triggered substantial transformations in the labor market. The labor surplus generated by increased productivity in rural areas, together with the growth in labor demand driven by export-oriented sectors in urban areas, contributed to the largest movement of workforce in history. The rural-to-urban migration currently taking place is substantially contributing to the sustained economic growth of China – especially of its cities – but also raises important issues about segregation and inequality in the urban labor market. In contrast, migration has also significant consequences for the individuals left-behind in rural areas. How economic conditions in sending households and villages are affected by the remittances sent by migrants, or by their return from the cities, is crucial for assessing the benefits of migration. The gradual decline of state-owned companies and the rise of the private sector emphasize on the one hand the consequences that labor reallocation has on the occupational mobility of the workforce and on the other the crucial role that entrepreneurship will have in the future development of China. Pulled by economic growth, investments in education have substantially increased especially in urban areas, posing challenges on how skills can be efficiently allocated in the labor market. In the background, reforms of the welfare system have slowly started to take place. One clear challenge is how the social insurance and pensions system can be transformed into one that is more compatible with a market economy. Another issue will soon be its sustainability, considering the imminent shrinking of the labor force caused – among other things – by the one-child policy.
Design is a creative activity. However, when designers fail to properly understand the full array of human diversity, their work can include barriers that make it…
Design is a creative activity. However, when designers fail to properly understand the full array of human diversity, their work can include barriers that make it difficult or impossible for individuals with disabilities to access, engage, and benefit. This issue has huge implications on the context of the design of educational materials for 21st century learners. This chapter provides an introduction to the issues associated with accessible instructional design and provides an overview of the chapters selected for inclusion in this volume.
Using matched data from the 1996 to 2004 Current Population Survey (CPS), we examine racial patterns in annual transitions into and out of health insurance coverage. We…
Using matched data from the 1996 to 2004 Current Population Survey (CPS), we examine racial patterns in annual transitions into and out of health insurance coverage. We first decompose racial differences in static health insurance coverage rates into group differences in transition rates into and out of health insurance coverage. The low rate of health insurance coverage among African-Americans is due almost entirely to higher annual rates of losing health insurance than whites. Among the uninsured, African-Americans have similar rates of gaining health insurance in the following year as whites. Estimates from the matched CPS also indicate that the lower rate of health insurance coverage among Asians is almost entirely accounted for by a relatively high rate of losing health insurance. In contrast to these findings, differences in health insurance coverage between Latinos and whites are due to group differences in both the rate of health insurance loss and gain. Using logit regression estimates, we also calculate nonlinear decompositions for the racial gaps in health insurance loss and gain. We find that two main factors are responsible for differences in health insurance loss between working-age whites and minorities: job loss and education level. Higher rates of job loss account for 30 percent of the health insurance gap for African-Americans and Asians, and 16 percent of the health insurance gap for Latinos. Lower levels of education explain roughly 15 percent of the gap for African-Americans and Latinos (Asians' higher levels of education serve to close the gap). Higher rates of welfare and SSI participation among African-Americans also serve to widen the gap in health insurance loss by 8 percent.