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Drugs in the same therapeutic class differ in their therapeutic profile, metabolism, adverse effects, dosing schedules, delivery systems, and other features. In addition…
Drugs in the same therapeutic class differ in their therapeutic profile, metabolism, adverse effects, dosing schedules, delivery systems, and other features. In addition, such agents can provide backup if the initial drug sometimes fails in the development stage or in the market. The availability of a broad range of medicines enables physicians to treat with precision the individual needs of diverse patients and provides options when the first agent used is either ineffective or not tolerated. Some incremental innovations have been associated with overall cost savings. Competition among drugs in a therapeutic class drives prices down. Policies that limit research on incremental innovations may deny access to important therapies, reduce competition, and erode incentives for research.
The relationship between patents and the pharmaceutical industry is both complex and important. While many believe that patents are manipulated by the pharmaceutical…
The relationship between patents and the pharmaceutical industry is both complex and important. While many believe that patents are manipulated by the pharmaceutical industry for its own economic ends, a historical approach to the utilization of patents combined with an analysis of current patent issues places this relationship in its proper context. Though patents were created long before the pharmaceutical industry reached its current status as a major industry in the United States, a historical, analytic approach shows that the pharmaceutical industry has adjusted to constantly evolving legislation enacted to provide the most effective and efficient system by which to research, invent, regulate and patent new medicines.
Given the dramatic changes taking place in society, the economy, and technology, 21st-century organizations need to engage in new, more spontaneous, and more innovative…
Given the dramatic changes taking place in society, the economy, and technology, 21st-century organizations need to engage in new, more spontaneous, and more innovative ways of managing. I investigate why an increasing number of companies are including artists and artistic processes in their approaches to strategic and day-to-day management and leadership.
– The purpose of this paper is to survey the relationship between thinking styles with creativity in physical education teachers.
The purpose of this paper is to survey the relationship between thinking styles with creativity in physical education teachers.
The research method is descriptive – applied and based on related purpose it was applicative. The study's statistical community includes all physical education teachers in the middle period in Iran and their numbers at the time of the study were 600 individuals. The statistical sample using a Morgan table was selected to be 235 individuals. To measure research variables two questionnaires (Sternberg thinking style and creativity, Torrance, 1972) were used. To calculate the validity of the questionnaire questions, Cronbach's α test was used, and the obtained α for the thinking style questionnaire and creativity were equal to 0.86 and 0.89, respectively. Descriptive and inferential statistics were also used in this study, which in statistical inference section (Kolmogorov-Smirnov test, Pearson correlation coefficient, Spearman correlation coefficient, Friedman ranking test and t-test) were used.
The results showed that there is no significant relationship between individual characteristics (gender, education and work experience) and styles of thinking, but there is significant relationship between creativity and thinking style. Besides, there is a meaningful difference between creativity with thinking style. In the ranking between thinking style factors, significant differences were observed and at the end some proposals were stated.
The theoretical framework provides a new direction for conceptualizing research, development and practice, designed to promote thinking, creativity in education and other sectors in a new era of globalization and great transformation.
The purpose of this paper is to take a look at significant contributions of Follett through the lens of critical biography to put her work in the context of her life…
The purpose of this paper is to take a look at significant contributions of Follett through the lens of critical biography to put her work in the context of her life events, her mentors, and the other major influences on her work.
Critical biography is a qualitative method with which social historians research the individual scholar's or practitioner's critical incidents in life in order to explore and explain the subject's scholarly development and intellectual contributions, situated in the social and historical background of the subject.
Key theoretical contributions of Mary Parker Follett, which seemed ahead of her time and inexplicable given that she did not work in the private sector, are revealed to be linked to her educational, professional and personal experiences.
Qualitative research in general and critical biography in particular are demonstrated to be the useful methods for providing context for management history. The limitation of author interpretation is recognized.
The current usefulness of Follett's ideas are demonstrated and a case is made for increasing management history coverage in today's business schools.
The paper offers a critical biography of Mary Parker Follett and provides a historical, social and political context for the evolution of her work.
Well‐founded complaint has recently been made concerning the characters of the various forms of “candy,” or, as we should term them, “sweets,” that are manufactured in great quantities in the United States.