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Article
Publication date: 1 January 1991

Richard J. Tersine and Albert B. Schwarzkopf

Should an organization modify its ordering policies when a supplier announces an impending price increase for an item? Announced price increases are a common economic…

Abstract

Should an organization modify its ordering policies when a supplier announces an impending price increase for an item? Announced price increases are a common economic phenomenon. This article develops the optimal stock replenishment strategies in response to a price change. It is shown that the optimal response depends on the number of order cycles before the price change becomes effective. The potential cost savings can be substantial. The familiar model for determining the optimal stock replenishment strategy for an impending price increase assumes a buyer has limited replenishment opportunities before the increase. This paper extends the model to include multiple replenishment opportunities. Optimal replenishment strategies are developed for any length of notification period and cost savings are identified.

Details

The International Journal of Logistics Management, vol. 2 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0957-4093

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Article
Publication date: 8 November 2011

Stefan Schwarzkopf

This paper aims to provide an overview over the development of historical research into advertising from the early twentieth century. Its main purposes are to interest…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to provide an overview over the development of historical research into advertising from the early twentieth century. Its main purposes are to interest marketing scholars and business historians in the history of advertising, help scholars that are unfamiliar with the field in choosing an appropriate theoretical and methodological angle, and provide a critique of a range of methods and theoretical approaches being applied in advertising historical research.

Design/methodology/approach

The research design of this paper is based on historiographical analysis and method critique. It surveys the advertising historical literature of the three decades between 1980 and 2010, and it compares and contrasts dominant research methodologies and theoretical paradigms that have been used by historians and advertising researchers.

Findings

Much advertising historical research is based on a specific set of theoretical paradigms (“Modernization”, “Americanization”, and “Semiotics”), without being aware of the manifest impact they have on the narratives and understandings that historians create. Identifying these paradigms and outlining their impact will help marketing historians and advertising researchers to avoid the pitfalls associated with particular paradigms.

Originality/value

This paper subjects the modern historiography of advertising to a methodological and narratological analysis. It uses this analysis to propose new and somewhat more critical directions in advertising historical research.

Details

Journal of Historical Research in Marketing, vol. 3 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1755-750X

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Article
Publication date: 15 February 2016

Stefan Schwarzkopf

This paper aims to chart the influence of McCarthyism and of FBI surveillance practices on a number of prominent American social scientists, market researchers, opinion…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to chart the influence of McCarthyism and of FBI surveillance practices on a number of prominent American social scientists, market researchers, opinion pollsters and survey research practitioners during the post-war years. Hitherto disparate sets of historical evidence on how Red Scare tactics influenced social researchers and marketing scientists are brought together and updated with evidence from original archival research.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper draws on the existing secondary literature on how social research practitioners and social scientists reacted to the unusually high pressures on academic freedom during the McCarthy era. It supplements this review with evidence obtained from archival research, including declassified FBI files. The focus of this paper is set on prominent individuals, mainly Bernard Berelson, Samuel Stouffer, Hadley Cantril, Robert S. Lynd, Paul F. Lazarsfeld, Herta Herzog, Ernest Dichter, but also the Frankfurt School in exile.

Findings

Although some of the historiography presents American social scientists and practitioners in the marketing research sector as victims of McCarthyism and FBI surveillance, it can also be shown that virtually all individuals in focus here also developed strategies of accommodation, compromise and even opportunism to benefit from the climate of suspicion brought about by the prevailing anti-Communism.

Social implications

Anyone interested in questions about the morality of marketing, market research and opinion polling as part of the social sciences practiced in vivo will need to pay attention to the way these social-scientific practices became tarnished by the way prominent researchers accommodated and at times even abetted McCarthyism.

Originality/value

Against the view of social scientists as harassed academic minority, evidence is presented in this paper which shows American social scientists who researched market-related phenomena, like media, voters choices and consumer behaviour, in a different light. Most importantly, this paper for the first time presents archival evidence on the scale of Paul F. Lazarsfeld’s surveillance by the FBI.

Details

Journal of Historical Research in Marketing, vol. 8 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1755-750X

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Book part
Publication date: 20 August 2018

Einar Már GuÐmundsson

It seems a commonplace notion that when we talk about trust, we are really talking about the lack of trust. After all, if there were solid trust throughout society, we…

Abstract

It seems a commonplace notion that when we talk about trust, we are really talking about the lack of trust. After all, if there were solid trust throughout society, we would not have to talk about it at all. But if we discuss lack of trust, are we to start with institutions or the individuals in the institutions? It would help us if we knew whether we need to fix wayward institutions or educate individuals for more ethical behaviour. Moving from thoughts of the ideal to the practical, we have seen how Icelanders have felt the effect of institutions and individuals gone astray in a two-fold manner: first, through the actions of those parties; second, as they listened to the painful but necessary story of those days in its repeated telling by the Special Investigative Commission. Hope remains, however, because, as natural disasters show us, when stripped of its trappings, human character can still revive our sense of trust.

Details

The Return of Trust? Institutions and the Public after the Icelandic Financial Crisis
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78743-348-9

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Article
Publication date: 15 January 2018

Fred Beard

When advertising historians began searching for substantial collections and archives of historical advertisements and marketing ephemera in the 1970s, some reported such…

Abstract

Purpose

When advertising historians began searching for substantial collections and archives of historical advertisements and marketing ephemera in the 1970s, some reported such holdings were rare. This paper aims to report the findings of the first systematic attempt to assess the scope and research value of the world’s archives and collections devoted to advertising and marketing ephemera.

Design/methodology/approach

Searches conducted online of the holdings of museums, libraries and the internet led to the identification and description of 179 archives and collections of historical significance for historians of marketing and advertising, as well as researchers interested in many other topics and disciplines.

Findings

The lists of archives and collections resulting from the research reported in this article represent the most complete collection of such sources available. Identified are the world’s oldest and largest collections of advertising and ephemera. Also identified are quite extraordinary collections of historically unique records and artifacts.

Research limitations/implications

The online searches continued until a point of redundancy was reached and no new archives or collections meeting the search criteria emerged. There remains the likelihood, however, that other archives and collections exist, especially in non-Western countries.

Originality/value

The findings make valuable contributions to the work of historians and other scholars by encouraging more global and cross-cultural research and historical analyses of trends and themes in professional practices in marketing and advertising and their consequences over a longer period than previously studied.

Details

Journal of Historical Research in Marketing, vol. 10 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1755-750X

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Article
Publication date: 1 January 1977

Beth Macleod and David Ginsburg

Although none of the new music reference books of the past year totally replaces the old stand‐bys, some significant works did appear, especially in the areas of…

Abstract

Although none of the new music reference books of the past year totally replaces the old stand‐bys, some significant works did appear, especially in the areas of contemporary music, opera, and classical music discography.

Details

Reference Services Review, vol. 5 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0090-7324

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Article
Publication date: 1 February 1979

Jimmie Hoover

These days, with everyone on the government publications bandwagon, it is hard for the documents specialist to single out specific problems to worry about. Workshops are…

Abstract

These days, with everyone on the government publications bandwagon, it is hard for the documents specialist to single out specific problems to worry about. Workshops are cropping up like new corn from coast to coast; articles and books about government documents redundantly abound; a disciplined and ruthless army of microform and documents reprint salesmen regale us with gusto and champagne while the GPO issues directives, notices, guidelines and newsletters and sets new records for distributing federal information. The state of the art is a busy canvas indeed. So I wish to single out two subjects from the welter of topics which may be ripe for consideration: our failure to properly recognize the contribution that genealogists have made to our reference services and our unforgivable and unrequited lust for “archival” microforms.

Details

Reference Services Review, vol. 7 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0090-7324

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Article
Publication date: 1 March 1996

Bert Chapman

The conclusion of the Cold War rivalry between the United States and former Soviet Union in the late 1980s and early 1990s created new areas of opportunity and concern for…

Abstract

The conclusion of the Cold War rivalry between the United States and former Soviet Union in the late 1980s and early 1990s created new areas of opportunity and concern for U.S. national security policy. No longer menaced by the threat of nuclear war from Soviet military might, the United States emerged from the Cold War as the world's preeminent military power. Successful developments such as this often produce elation in the pronouncements of U.S. officials as a recent Clinton administration declaration demonstrates:

Details

Reference Services Review, vol. 24 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0090-7324

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Article
Publication date: 13 November 2020

Fred Beard and Brian Petrotta

A series of online searches of the Harvard University Library System – which includes the Baker Library, Houghton Library and the Radcliffe Institute’s Arthur and…

Abstract

Purpose

A series of online searches of the Harvard University Library System – which includes the Baker Library, Houghton Library and the Radcliffe Institute’s Arthur and Elizabeth Schlesinger Library – on the History of Women in America revealed nearly 1,000 archive and manuscript holdings on advertising and related topics. This paper aims to investigate the extent of these holdings, to assess their value to advertising and marketing historians and to explore their potential for encouraging future research on under-investigated topics and questions.

Design/methodology/approach

Described are the extensive and valuable special collections and other holdings related to advertising, business and marketing of the Harvard Library System. Also described are the availability of the holdings and recommendations for accessing and studying the collections and artifacts.

Findings

The research reported here supports an overall conclusion that the Harvard Library System holds an important place among the world’s repositories of valuable historical advertisements and marketing ephemera. The research also supports four specific conclusions regarding the historical value of Harvard’s collections and archives. First, some of the collections offer access to artifacts and items from an under-investigated period – the first half of the 19th century. Second, many of the collections are international in scope. Third, the collections represent a wide array of 19th century non-periodical advertisements and ephemera, such as trade cards, posters and theatrical playbills. Fourth, and most important, the collections offer significant potential for addressing, among other under-investigated topics, the important role of women in the development of modern advertising theory and professional practices.

Originality/value

A prior search for the world’s largest and most historically significant archives and collections of advertisements and marketing ephemera (promotional objects or media executions created for a one-time, limited purpose) revealed a handful of library and museum collections of exceptional size or topical importance meriting further investigation. This paper adds to an extensive line of research published in the marketing and advertising historical literature exploring and describing the breadth, depth and historical value of the world’s important collections of historical advertisements and ephemera.

Details

Journal of Historical Research in Marketing, vol. 13 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1755-750X

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Article
Publication date: 1 August 1968

Introduction Hastily, I beat the editor to it by writing “These are the personal views of the author, and do not necessarily represent the views of the editor of this…

Abstract

Introduction Hastily, I beat the editor to it by writing “These are the personal views of the author, and do not necessarily represent the views of the editor of this journal.” Indeed, I take it further. The article does not necessarily, in general manner or particular phrase, represent the views of the National Committee of National Library Week. It's a great disappointment to me that to date neither the National Committee nor myself has had to disown the other. Our opinions, to date, coincide on all salient points. No blows have been exchanged between Committee and Organiser. Since concord should often be more rightly spelt “c‐o‐m‐p‐l‐a‐c‐e‐n‐c‐y”, I regret this. All, however, may yet be well. My full views as Organiser of NLW 1969 follow: I shall state them with the most forthright candour and the most furious conviction; and the fisticuffs may well follow, as sure as Library fines. If the editor considers this preamble, too … well, too ambling … I proffer one excuse. As organiser, I'm as over‐worked and time‐pressed as any librarian, and my defence is therefore borrowed from Flaubert: “Forgive a long letter—I had no time to write a short one.” (Reference librarians, please check this quotation. I'm too busy.) Finally, there are those who write very lightly when they wish to state their most serious belief. Into this maladjusted and misjudged fraternity, I was myself born.

Details

New Library World, vol. 70 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0307-4803

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