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Article
Publication date: 1 March 2003

Jeff Clowes and Alan Tapp

The purpose of this research was to investigate the attendance range of spectators at an English Football Association Premier League club. The numbers of spectators in…

Abstract

The purpose of this research was to investigate the attendance range of spectators at an English Football Association Premier League club. The numbers of spectators in both percentage and absolute terms were calculated and allocated to three segments (heavy, medium, light attendance). The findings were compared to an earlier reported study in the United States and marketing recommendations based on related studies and industry expertise were proposed for those involved in live spectator sports.

Details

International Journal of Sports Marketing and Sponsorship, vol. 5 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1464-6668

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Article
Publication date: 24 October 2008

Alan Tapp

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557

Abstract

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Marketing Intelligence & Planning, vol. 26 no. 7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0263-4503

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Article
Publication date: 1 December 2002

Alan Tapp and Jeff Clowes

Academically constructed segments may often fail to be implemented by practitioners. There may be a number of reasons for this, but at the heart of the matter for…

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10285

Abstract

Academically constructed segments may often fail to be implemented by practitioners. There may be a number of reasons for this, but at the heart of the matter for practitioners must be an economic reward that outweighs the incremental costs of segmenting. Central to this issue is the ease with which different types of data can be collected and used. Experience from direct marketing practice suggests that segments based on customer value and customer benefits sought often lead to successful strategies. Accordingly, looks to utilise these variables to complement the traditional use of geo‐demographic and psychographic approaches. Examines the business of football. Using a mixed qualitative and survey based approach, an exploration of football supporters was undertaken with the objective of identifying segmentation opportunities. A number of new segments were identified, among them “professional wanderers”; “carefree casuals” and “repertoire fans”. Suggests directions for broader studies. Hopes that this work will better inform the marketing efforts of professional sports franchises and indeed all leisure sectors that rely on regular live audiences for their livelihood.

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European Journal of Marketing, vol. 36 no. 11/12
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0309-0566

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Article
Publication date: 15 May 2007

Alan Tapp

This paper seeks to identify and discuss a phenomenon with a hidden but severe impact on the conduct of research and teaching in marketing.

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1470

Abstract

Purpose

This paper seeks to identify and discuss a phenomenon with a hidden but severe impact on the conduct of research and teaching in marketing.

Design/methodology/approach

Solicited as a viewpoint contribution, with permission to think aloud.

Findings

Physics, as the archetypal “proper” science, has exerted an undue and malign influence within universities on perceptions of scholarliness in “soft” sciences such as marketing, and hence on the applicability of its research and teaching. But the anti‐science commentators may protest too much; the key question is how science is applied. Physics envy could therefore have a positive outcome, if debate is encouraged.

Practical implications

There are obvious implications for the structure of research and teaching in university departments and sub‐departments of marketing, in the UK and elsewhere.

Originality/value

A polemic, but one with a balanced conclusion.

Details

Marketing Intelligence & Planning, vol. 25 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0263-4503

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Article
Publication date: 1 March 2000

John Beech, Simon Chadwick and Alan Tapp

Literature findings suggest a powerful role for Web sites in football club marketing. The authors used this as a springboard for an exploratory study which combined…

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4451

Abstract

Literature findings suggest a powerful role for Web sites in football club marketing. The authors used this as a springboard for an exploratory study which combined qualitative interviews with empirical observations of football Web sites. Links were discovered between clubs’ marketing orientation, departmental structure and subsequent Web site management. The size of the club was also found to be important, but more in relation to a lack of marketing presence than in relation to economic factors. Club motives for Web site development reflected the growing commercial development of football in the UK, with some clubs concentrating on ticketing and merchandising. Others concentrated on adding value to supporter services with devices such as daily news items. Relatively few clubs were gathering data on their supporters. These findings reflect differing awareness and attitudes of club managers towards relationship marketing with their supporters. A number of future research opportunities have been identified.

Details

Qualitative Market Research: An International Journal, vol. 3 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1352-2752

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Article
Publication date: 4 April 2008

Alan Tapp and Tim Hughes

The purpose of this paper is to highlight what the authors regard as serious problems with the continuing dominance of a “hard science” view of what constitutes “top…

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1688

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to highlight what the authors regard as serious problems with the continuing dominance of a “hard science” view of what constitutes “top quality” research, and to present evidence that a “softer” approach will yield work that more closely aligns with the everyday reality of marketing.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors use a contrast between the marketing discipline and chemistry to illustrate their concerns about the use of “hard science” in academic marketing. This was supplemented with analyses of academic marketing work already published to illustrate particular points.

Findings

The authors propose that academic marketers need to take a “horses for courses” approach and ground their research in the reality of the discipline. Different areas within the discipline of marketing are debated, and it is concluded that some areas may still respond well to scientific approaches, while others may benefit from a relaxation into interpretive approaches. The paper argues the need to concentrate more on reflecting a reality that is recognised by the wider marketing community, rather than getting wound up in methodological strait‐jackets. To illustrate these points, the lack of recent progress in research on market segmentation is considered, and a “typical hard science paper” is critiqued. The authors summarise the reasons why it is wrong to apply a “hard science” approach on a carte blanche basis and argue for a more pluralist critical realist approach.

Practical implications

The contention is that the over‐heavy trappings of science in much academic work have the effect of removing that work from practical norms. Therefore the practical implications of this paper are potentially significant.

Originality/value

The paper promotes the soft science stance as the most appropriate epistemology for mainstream academic marketing research.

Details

European Journal of Marketing, vol. 42 no. 3/4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0309-0566

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Article
Publication date: 5 October 2012

Fiona Spotswood, Jeff French, Alan Tapp and Martine Stead

The purpose of this paper is to explore the scope of social marketing by re-examining some of its core concepts: the balance between the “wants” of individuals with the…

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3704

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to explore the scope of social marketing by re-examining some of its core concepts: the balance between the “wants” of individuals with the “needs” of society; the nature of exchange; the inclusion of techniques not explicitly considered part of the panoply of marketing; techniques available to social marketing, such as “nudge” style techniques, regulation or behavioural conditioning; the view that behaviour change must be its definitive goal; the ethical and political dimensions of social marketing; and the definition of social marketing.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors pose seven questions based on these concepts which they debate.

Findings

The authors conclude that a more inclusive view of what constitutes social marketing is required: one that avoids absolutism or defining the field in terms of the tactics it employs. The paper calls for a set of ethical codes which would enable social marketers to better defend approaches that deploy more implicit and strongly persuasive techniques common in the commercial world but unacknowledged in social marketing.

Originality/value

The paper questions some of the settled views of the field, such as the focus on “behaviour change” and the notion of “exchange” and “voluntary” behaviour change. The paper debates the ethical implications of using “invisible” or coercive techniques, and the nature of customer-centricity. The paper also debates the politics of social marketing and encourages debate about interventions which go beyond rational exchange.

Details

Journal of Social Marketing, vol. 2 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2042-6763

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Article
Publication date: 1 August 2004

Alan Tapp

“Research has a value that does not depend on how true it is” is a quote from Griseri's call for management researchers to concern themselves less with scientific validity…

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1076

Abstract

“Research has a value that does not depend on how true it is” is a quote from Griseri's call for management researchers to concern themselves less with scientific validity and more with relevance, striking a chord within the marketing academy in the light of criticism of the lack of progress in building a body of theory in marketing and creating more links with practice. Some have warned of the dangers of too closely following practitioners’ agendas. This paper debates these issues and proposes that the academic marketing community should recognise the value of getting closer to practitioners. After reviewing literature on the issue, the paper makes the case for an overtly recognised applied researcher culture to sit alongside pure research colleagues. A theoretical framework is developed and applied to a “template” for research design that will allow researchers to generate and communicate knowledge more effectively.

Details

Marketing Intelligence & Planning, vol. 22 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0263-4503

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Article
Publication date: 7 October 2013

Alan Tapp and Fiona Spotswood

In this paper, the authors aim to contend that the 4Ps of social marketing have been stretched beyond breaking point. Originally designed for social marketing mixes that…

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12014

Abstract

Purpose

In this paper, the authors aim to contend that the 4Ps of social marketing have been stretched beyond breaking point. Originally designed for social marketing mixes that contained products and prices, the social marketing 4Ps are no longer fit for purpose in an age where social marketing interventions are so wide ranging. There is an urgent need for a replacement – a model that helps social marketers with the process of choosing an appropriate intervention design to fit the particular behaviour change problem faced. Here, the authors propose a model, the COM-SM framework, that connects social marketing programme types with the “capability, opportunity, motivation” model of behaviour.

Design/methodology/approach

This article is based on critical review of the efficacy of the 4Ps model in helping managers design social marketing programmes, followed by the conceptual development of an alternative.

Findings

Using some typical scenarios, it is contended that the COM-SM model better enables the marketer to adapt their designs to fit the behavioural challenges that they face.

Originality/value

The COM-SM model reworks the association between behaviour change insights and the social marketing mix, proposing a new way of designing social marketing interventions.

Details

Journal of Social Marketing, vol. 3 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2042-6763

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Article
Publication date: 10 February 2012

Sarah Leonard, Fiona Spotswood and Alan Tapp

The image of cyclists has been increasingly recognised as an important factor in social marketing programmes aimed at increasing cycling. The purpose of this paper is to…

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1087

Abstract

Purpose

The image of cyclists has been increasingly recognised as an important factor in social marketing programmes aimed at increasing cycling. The purpose of this paper is to present findings from a multi‐stage research project exploring image incongruencies between cyclists and non‐cyclists in the UK.

Design/methodology/approach

The theoretical framework of self‐image congruency was used to explore a possible “image gap” between the current image(s) of cyclists and the self concept of the GB population. The first stage of the research was a quantitative nationally representative survey of 3,855 British adults. The second phase involved a qualitative study involving ten in‐depth interviews and nine focus groups (n=60) exploring the image of cyclists with groups of non‐cyclists, lapsed cyclists, occasional cyclists, sports cyclists and utility cyclists.

Findings

Quantitative findings indicated that a gap exists between the perceived image of cyclists by GB adults and their collective self concept. Qualitative findings suggested that cyclists images were frequently viewed as negative or sometimes “out of reach” for non‐cyclists.

Research limitations/implications

Social marketers have a role to play in overcoming self‐image incongruencies of this type. The authors' intention was to enable social marketers to encourage non‐cyclists to view cycling in a more positive light by encouraging a perceptual shift in their image of cyclists in the UK. The implication is that this would form a bridging mechanism that narrows the gap between non‐cyclists' current image of cyclists and their image of themselves.

Originality/value

This work prompts reflections on the nature of self‐image congruency within the social marketing field. Initial observations are made as to the contribution that self‐image congruency may play in behaviour change.

Details

Journal of Social Marketing, vol. 2 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2042-6763

Keywords

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