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Recent studies of quality management systems suggest that all the quality dimensions that are expected within an integrated system are strongly associated with the basic…
Recent studies of quality management systems suggest that all the quality dimensions that are expected within an integrated system are strongly associated with the basic framework set by the formal ISO 9001‐based quality accreditation. However, the paradox of reducing variability through standardisation and, at the same time, constantly looking for improvements is often misunderstood in R&D. This paper reviews the R&D activities in the context of ISO 9001 and uses experience from four R&D organisations to explain its use as a strategic, process, people development and learning tool in managing the R&D function. The results revealed that even though these companies have not yet started to work towards the revised standard (ISO 9000‐1:2000) they place great emphasis on bridging the gap between the requirements for quality assurance and the principles of quality management.
Technological innovation is universally recognised as a major generator of economic progress, producing mild—and sometimes major—changes, in existing technologies, attitudes, methods of operation, and patterns of demand, which in turn can engender resistance from those parties chiefly affected. At the same time, the incursions into foreign technological territory usually involved can be severely hampered by formidable technical obstacles which can act to frustrate the ultimate success of the venture. Imponderables such as these are widely acknowledged as the sources of the uncertainty traditionally associated with radical innovative projects.
The article looks at one aspect of a study of the R&D/marketing interface in six projects drawn from three companies in the pharmaceutical industry.
Quality in research and development (R&D) work has become increasinglyimportant as companies commit themselves to quality improvementprogrammes in all areas of their…
Quality in research and development (R&D) work has become increasingly important as companies commit themselves to quality improvement programmes in all areas of their activity. Quality improvement forms an important part of their competitive strategy. Quality management systems have been successfuly designed and implemented for manufacturing and service functions; but so far the quality principles and systems have been difficult to translate to the R&D function. Looks at the challenge of effective implementation of quality management and total quality principles in R&D. Discusses quality concepts, terms, systems and critical factors for successful implementation. Uses brief case histories to highlight particular approaches to implementation. Finally, introduces a new, versatile method for evaluating the capabilities of an R&D organization in terms of total quality management. It is presented in the form of a case study showing its use in a large R&D laboratory of a major multinational corporation.
Learning is an essential part of innovation, including the need to internalize and disseminate information and to reduce the duplication of research activities, both…
Learning is an essential part of innovation, including the need to internalize and disseminate information and to reduce the duplication of research activities, both technological and organizational. Using a theoretically based framework that places emphasis on the interpretative dimension of organizational learning and centers on learning processes, descriptive accounts of organizational learning in the context of R&D‐intensive companies were produced. From these case studies, specific learning tools or mechanisms were identified: job rotation, innovation process planning (activities, responsibilities, networks, sharing assumptions) and (product innovation) project review. Overall findings point to an organizational learning process which involves a high degree of parallelism and depends on the knowledge base of the organization.
“The supply of educated people is critical to the UK′s future vitality and prosperity. We are well behind our international competitors”. This article is taken from a recent report which is intended to aid the policy debate on the future development of higher education. Current trends in student demand for higher education and on the supply and demand for graduates are presented.