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Article
Publication date: 13 January 2012

Alan C.K. Cheung and Ping Man Wong

The objective of this paper was to examine key hindering and facilitating factors in schools during the first stage of the curriculum reform (2001‐2006) in Hong Kong and…

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4659

Abstract

Purpose

The objective of this paper was to examine key hindering and facilitating factors in schools during the first stage of the curriculum reform (2001‐2006) in Hong Kong and to identify key strategies to address these challenges.

Design/methodology/approach

A total of 150 primary and 120 secondary schools with 7,869 key stakeholders including principals, curriculum leaders, teachers, and students participated in the study. The data for this study was collected from the following two major methods: survey questionnaire and in‐depth interviews. The response rate was 95 percent.

Findings

In spite of the different roles played by each stakeholder in the curriculum reform, the perceptions of school principals, curriculum leaders, and teachers were very similar with regards to the factors that facilitated and hindered their successful implementation of the reform. Consistent with the current literature, the findings clearly indicated that the recent curriculum reform in Hong Kong was still facing several key obstacles and challenges that were common in many other countries, in the implementation stage, such as teachers' heavy workloads, learning diversity in class, and teachers' inadequate understanding of the reform.

Originality/value

The study is important in that this was the first large‐scale study ever conducted to examine the progress of the recent curriculum reform in Hong Kong. The findings of the results generate important policy recommendations that may improve the implementation of the curriculum reform in the next phase and contribute to the related literature in the areas of curriculum reform not only in Hong Kong but also other parts of the world.

Details

International Journal of Educational Management, vol. 26 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0951-354X

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Article
Publication date: 14 September 2012

Timothy W.W. Yuen, Alan C.K. Cheung and Ping Man Wong

To prepare Hong Kong students to face a rapidly changing twenty‐first century, the Hong Kong Government implemented a major curriculum reform entitled Learning to Learn …

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1444

Abstract

Purpose

To prepare Hong Kong students to face a rapidly changing twenty‐first century, the Hong Kong Government implemented a major curriculum reform entitled Learning to Learn – The Way Forward in Curriculum Development. This reform has shaped the direction of Hong Kong's school education since 2001. The purpose of this paper is to examine the impact of the reform from the perspectives of the major stakeholders, namely principals, teachers, and students.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper was written based on the data obtained from a large‐scale study that covered over 250 primary and secondary schools, or about 20 per cent of the total population in Hong Kong. Both qualitative (focus group interviews) and quantitative methods (questionnaire survey) were employed in the study.

Findings

The findings indicated that moderate progress has been made in students’ overall performance in generic skills, positive values and attitudes, language proficiency, and over the key learning areas. On the other hand, the progress made in secondary schools was perceived to be less than that made in primary schools. The views of frontline teachers could also be different from senior teachers and principals as to the degree of achievement. There also existed a gap as the progress reported for critical thinking and self learning abilities might be less favourable when compared to those reported for IT, reading habits and healthy lifestyle.

Originality/value

The original findings and policy suggestions of the paper are of reference value to curriculum policy planners, researchers and educators.

Details

International Journal of Educational Management, vol. 26 no. 7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0951-354X

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Article
Publication date: 21 June 2011

Yin Cheong Cheng, Alan C.K. Cheung and Timothy W.W. Yeun

This paper aims to review and analyze the functions, strategies and related issues of developing a regional education hub in the trends of education development in China…

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3344

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to review and analyze the functions, strategies and related issues of developing a regional education hub in the trends of education development in China as well as the Asian Pacific region.

Design/methodology/approach

Taking Hong Kong as an emerging case, it examines through literature and international comparison the relationship between education hub development and higher education development as well as the strategic functions of an education hub to the future development of Hong Kong.

Findings

The development of an education hub was found closely linked to the demand for higher education in the Asian Pacific region as well as the internal dynamic of higher education and society in Hong Kong. The mode of education hub development in Hong Kong should be driven by soft‐power building instead of industrialization. The requirements for successful implementation include the huge demands for higher education in the region, the strengths of the higher education sector, the supporting policies and measures for international students and education service providers, and the leadership and support of central agencies.

Originality/value

This paper provides a new typology of higher education developments and a new mode of education hub development to analyze the strategic functions and requirements of developing education hub in the context of Asia‐Pacific Region. The discussion and analysis in this paper will contribute to the related literature, policy development and initiative implementation in the areas of education hub and higher education not only in Hong Kong but also other parts of the world.

Details

International Journal of Educational Management, vol. 25 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0951-354X

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 21 June 2011

Alan C.K. Cheung and Ping Man Wong

The purpose of this paper is to examine the progress of the curriculum reform in Hong Kong in the implementation phase from 2001‐2006, with the agreement and support of…

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2009

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine the progress of the curriculum reform in Hong Kong in the implementation phase from 2001‐2006, with the agreement and support of heads and teachers on the reform.

Design/methodology/approach

Survey questionnaires and focus group interviews were used to collect data from various stakeholders. A stratified random sampling method was employed to select 150 primary schools and 120 secondary schools to participate in the study.

Findings

It is found that with the agreement and support of school heads and teachers, there is good progress in the reform items on teaching and learning. Findings of this paper also suggest that teachers who agreed with the reform items made changes with their practices in terms of learning and teaching strategies, catering to learner diversity, assessment for learning, developing students' language proficiency, cross‐curricula learning, playing multiple teachers' roles and preparation for the new senior secondary curriculum. This study thus supports most findings from the change literature with its empirical data that educational changes and innovations with the agreement and support of school heads and teachers tend to have a greater chance of succeeding.

Originality/value

The paper contributes by examining to what extent findings and views established in change literature elsewhere can be justified and enriched with the case of Hong Kong.

Details

International Journal of Educational Management, vol. 25 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0951-354X

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Article
Publication date: 22 February 2011

Alan C.K. Cheung, Timothy W.W. Yuen, Celeste Y.M. Yuen and Yin Cheong Cheng

The main purpose of the present paper is twofold: to examine and compare the current strategies and policies that are employed by the UK, Australia and Singapore and to…

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4124

Abstract

Purpose

The main purpose of the present paper is twofold: to examine and compare the current strategies and policies that are employed by the UK, Australia and Singapore and to recommend appropriate strategies and policies to higher education institutions and the Hong Kong government and elsewhere that are interested in expanding their efforts in recruiting the growing number of students from other countries who are planning to study overseas.

Design/methodology/approach

The data for this project were obtained primarily from documents and in‐depth interviews. Documents include government reports, policy addresses, official statistics, etc. The in‐depth interviews were conducted in Hong Kong as well as in the four studied cities – Mumbai, New Delhi, Jakarta, and Kuala Lumpur. Interviewees included government officials, academics, higher education institutions’ representatives, consultant generals, and officials from policy bodies.

Findings

It is clear from the findings of this present study that a set of favorable policies and strategies at the national level was behind the success of these competitors. Such policies are not confined to educational policies but are extended to population and employment policies.

Research limitations/implications

Though the study examined policies and strategies employed by three countries, findings from the study may generate useful information to countries that may be interested in exporting their higher education to Asian markets.

Practical implications

The paper suggests that if Hong Kong is to attain success in becoming an international exporter of education services, it may need to adopt favorable policies at institute and system level, and in so doing it can definitely benefit by carefully studying the strategies and policies employed by these three competitors.

Originality/value

Few studies have examined and compared strategies and policies employed by these three key major players of higher education services. This study provides some useful strategies and policy recommendation to education decision makers in Hong Kong and elsewhere that may be interested in entering Asian markets.

Details

International Journal of Educational Management, vol. 25 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0951-354X

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Article
Publication date: 22 March 2013

Alan C.K. Cheung

The purpose of this paper is to examine language, academic, social‐cultural and financial adjustments facing mainland Chinese students in Hong Kong.

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2597

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine language, academic, social‐cultural and financial adjustments facing mainland Chinese students in Hong Kong.

Design/methodology/approach

The current study employed both quantitative and qualitative methods and included over 300 mainland Chinese students from seven major universities in Hong Kong. In addition to a survey questionnaire, in‐depth interviews were also conducted. Purposive and snowball sampling methods were used to recruit participants.

Findings

The findings indicate that though mainland Chinese students were satisfied with the quality of Hong Kong's higher education, many expressed that they were having language, academic, social and cultural, and financial challenges during their stay in Hong Kong. The results are consistent with the current literature to a large extent with some variations. Few differences were found by gender and between undergraduate and graduate students.

Research limitations/implications

Two thirds of the sample was undergraduate students and only one third graduate students. Future research may want to include an equal number of participants from both groups to get a more balanced view. In addition, since the sample of our sub‐degree students was very small, generalization to this group will be inappropriate. Future studies are needed to explore the unique challenges facing these mainland Chinese students who are pursuing their sub‐degree in Hong Kong.

Originality/value

Most of the current research is limited to mainland Chinese students studying in Western countries, such as the USA, the UK and Australia. Few studies to date examine adjustment problems of mainland Chinese students studying in Hong Kong. There is a need, therefore, to deepen our understanding of the major adjustment issues experienced by these mainland Chinese students in Hong Kong.

Details

International Journal of Educational Management, vol. 27 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0951-354X

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Article
Publication date: 22 June 2010

Alan C.K. Cheung, Timothy W.W. Yuen, Celeste Y.M. Yuen and Yin Cheong Cheng

The main purpose of this study is threefold: to analyze the current conditions of higher education services offered in the three target markets; to conduct market…

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3222

Abstract

Purpose

The main purpose of this study is threefold: to analyze the current conditions of higher education services offered in the three target markets; to conduct market segmentation analysis of these markets; and to recommend the most appropriate market entry strategies for Hong Kong's education service providers.

Design/methodology/approach

The data for this project were obtained primarily by questionnaire survey and interviews. The research team collected 1,370 questionnaires and conducted a total of 121 individual and focus group interviews in the four studied cities – Mumbai, New Delhi, Jakarta, and Kuala Lumpur.

Findings

The study found that there was a high unmet demand for higher education overseas and that the visibility of Hong Kong's higher education was relatively weak in these Asian markets. In order to capture the continued rise of students in Asia, higher education institutions and the Hong Kong government need to work together to analyze the potential markets critically and employ marketing strategies sensibly. Several key recommendations have been provided based on the findings.

Research limitations/implications

The study was undertaken in a few key cities in these three target markets. However, findings from the study may generate insights into other cities with similar characteristics in these countries and the Asian regions.

Practical implications

The paper suggests that decision makers at the institutional level and government level seeking to enter these markets must pay attention to the importance of market segmentation and the 4P variables in formulating their marketing strategies.

Originality/value

Few studies have examined the current condition of higher education services in these three emerging Asian markets. The study provides some useful marketing information to education decision makers in Hong Kong and elsewhere who may be interested in formulating marketing strategies in these markets.

Details

International Journal of Educational Management, vol. 24 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0951-354X

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 8 August 2016

Alan C.K. Cheung, E. Vance Randall and Man Kwan Tam

This paper is a historical review of the development of private primary and secondary education in Hong Kong from 1841-2012. The purpose of this paper is to examine the…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper is a historical review of the development of private primary and secondary education in Hong Kong from 1841-2012. The purpose of this paper is to examine the evolving relationship between the state and private schools in Hong Kong.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper utilizes sources from published official documents, public data available on government websites, archival documents and newspapers. The authors also carried out a few individual interviews with legislators, government officials and principals who were familiar with the history of private education in Hong Kong.

Findings

The colonial Hong Kong Government adopted laissez-faire policy in greater part of its rule until 1970s. The year 1978 marked the period of “state control” until the 1990s when privatization and deregulation emerged as a world trend in the governance of education. The role of government changed to that of “supervision” instead of “control.” Further, it is shown that the change of sovereignty did not avert the trend of decentralization, deregulation and privatization in education which is entrenched in the management of public affairs in human societies.

Originality/value

The findings provides an illuminating look into the development of a society and how it grapples with the fundamental questions of the degree of social control and proper use of political power in a colonial setting.

Details

International Journal of Educational Management, vol. 30 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0951-354X

Keywords

Content available
Article
Publication date: 22 June 2010

Brian Roberts

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597

Abstract

Details

International Journal of Educational Management, vol. 24 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0951-354X

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Book part
Publication date: 10 December 2015

Dekar Urumsah

The concept and practice of e-services has become essential in business transactions. Yet there are still many organizations that have not developed e-services optimally…

Abstract

The concept and practice of e-services has become essential in business transactions. Yet there are still many organizations that have not developed e-services optimally. This is especially relevant in the context of Indonesian Airline companies. Therefore, many airline customers in Indonesia are still in doubt about it, or even do not use it. To fill this gap, this study attempts to develop a model for e-services adoption and empirically examines the factors influencing the airlines customers in Indonesia in using e-services offered by the Indonesian airline companies. Taking six Indonesian airline companies as a case example, the study investigated the antecedents of e-services usage of Indonesian airlines. This study further examined the impacts of motivation on customers in using e-services in the Indonesian context. Another important aim of this study was to investigate how ages, experiences and geographical areas moderate effects of e-services usage.

The study adopts a positivist research paradigm with a two-phase sequential mixed method design involving qualitative and quantitative approaches. An initial research model was first developed based on an extensive literature review, by combining acceptance and use of information technology theories, expectancy theory and the inter-organizational system motivation models. A qualitative field study via semi-structured interviews was then conducted to explore the present state among 15 respondents. The results of the interviews were analysed using content analysis yielding the final model of e-services usage. Eighteen antecedent factors hypotheses and three moderating factors hypotheses and 52-item questionnaire were developed. A focus group discussion of five respondents and a pilot study of 59 respondents resulted in final version of the questionnaire.

In the second phase, the main survey was conducted nationally to collect the research data among Indonesian airline customers who had already used Indonesian airline e-services. A total of 819 valid questionnaires were obtained. The data was then analysed using a partial least square (PLS) based structural equation modelling (SEM) technique to produce the contributions of links in the e-services model (22% of all the variances in e-services usage, 37.8% in intention to use, 46.6% in motivation, 39.2% in outcome expectancy, and 37.7% in effort expectancy). Meanwhile, path coefficients and t-values demonstrated various different influences of antecedent factors towards e-services usage. Additionally, a multi-group analysis based on PLS is employed with mixed results. In the final findings, 14 hypotheses were supported and 7 hypotheses were not supported.

The major findings of this study have confirmed that motivation has the strongest contribution in e-services usage. In addition, motivation affects e-services usage both directly and indirectly through intention-to-use. This study provides contributions to the existing knowledge of e-services models, and practical applications of IT usage. Most importantly, an understanding of antecedents of e-services adoption will provide guidelines for stakeholders in developing better e-services and strategies in order to promote and encourage more customers to use e-services. Finally, the accomplishment of this study can be expanded through possible adaptations in other industries and other geographical contexts.

Details

E-services Adoption: Processes by Firms in Developing Nations
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78560-709-7

Keywords

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