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Article
Publication date: 7 January 2020

Alan A. Lew

Tourism and travel experiences are a major contributor to expanding global awareness and consciousness, which is necessary to achieve sustainable development in an

Abstract

Purpose

Tourism and travel experiences are a major contributor to expanding global awareness and consciousness, which is necessary to achieve sustainable development in an integrated and rapidly shrinking world.

Design/methodology/approach

Consciousness is a major area of theoretical speculation and debate in neuroscience, philosophy, psychology, biology, quantum physics and spirituality disciplines. These fields offer insights into how tourism contributes to an evolving global consciousness.

Findings

Global consciousness is needed to give a context and vision for addressing the pressing needs of the world today. It is a platform to integrate sustainability at the individual level, and it justifies the human desire to travel as a consciousness expanding experience. In this way, tourism can serve as a positive force for creating a truly sustainable future world.

Practical implications

Global consciousness could be adopted as an 18th UN Sustainable Development Goal to give a holistic, spiritual and personal vision to sustainable development, which is currently lacking. Travel and tourism would be a major participant in achieving this goal.

Originality/value

Global consciousness is a non-dualist visionary goal for humankind, and for travel and tourism, which could move both toward more sustainable outcomes than have the reductionist sustainable development practices of the past.

Article
Publication date: 1 April 1995

Pierre‐Yves Guay et Sylvain Lefebvre

International tourism is steadily growing. Some people welcome this growth which supports economic and social development. Others are suspicious and afraid of the threat…

Abstract

International tourism is steadily growing. Some people welcome this growth which supports economic and social development. Others are suspicious and afraid of the threat which tourism could create for the tourist destinations, the loss of cultural identity and of social alienation to its society. Reality is more complex than these two contrary positions suggest. After analyzing the existent attempts to explain the social effects of tourism, this paper intends to illustrate the variability of these effects. In this regard, the globalisation of human activities and its consequences on cultural identity are taken into account.

Details

The Tourist Review, vol. 50 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0251-3102

Keywords

Open Access
Article
Publication date: 18 May 2021

Rajkumari Mittal and Parul Sinha

This paper aims to study the religious tourism supply chain and understand and introduce resilience across the same to mitigate post-pandemic disruptions.

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Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to study the religious tourism supply chain and understand and introduce resilience across the same to mitigate post-pandemic disruptions.

Design/methodology/approach

In this manuscript, a systematic literature review has been done to identify the gaps in the religious tourism supply chain, which gives adequate revenue to India but not studied yet. The identified gap shaped this study's objectives and research questions and guided the authors to devise a theoretical framework for the religious tourism supply chain.

Findings

The key findings of this research paper led to identifying both threats and opportunities for the religious tourism supply chain, which has been into existence and caused many disasters in the past. As pandemic Covid-19 shut the doors of these religious destinations for extended periods, it became necessary for governments, state authorities and private parties to think and devise the post unlock operating processes for this supply chain. This thinking directed the authors to create a framework for the smooth flow of people and other services across this supply chain. The collaborative efforts of all the stakeholders at various levels can realize the actual working of the suggested framework. A stagewise set of processes has been proposed to understand the resilience across the religious tourism supply chain and reduce disruptions.

Practical implications

Covid-19 pandemic has devastated the world economies and disrupted the supply chains of all sectors. The paper elaborates the need for cohesive efforts to introduce resilience across humanitarian supply chains and phase-wise processes to reduce the disruptions caused by various disasters. These systematic efforts will familiarize the readers with the need for resilience across the religious tourism supply chain. Still, it would also assist in generating revenue for the Indian government and reviving the economy soon.

Originality/value

The trade of religious tourism adds a significant contribution to the Indian economy in terms of revenue, employment, visibility of culture and destination, etc. The Covid-19 pandemic has immensely disrupted the tourism sector supply chain, resulting in huge losses (FICCI report 2020). The introduction and implementation of resilience across the religious tourism supply chain can diminish the losses and assist in reviving the economy soon. Construct of resilience across the religious tourism supply chain has not been studied yet. This manuscript contributes to identifying post-pandemic challenges across the religious tourism supply chain and ways to integrate resilience to reduce disruptions caused by disasters.

Article
Publication date: 5 March 2018

Maria João Ferreira Custódio, Antonio Azevedo and Fernando Pereira Perna

This paper aims to discuss the impacts of sports events, considering these: from the perspectives of residents (in terms of self-esteem, increase of social problems, car…

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Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to discuss the impacts of sports events, considering these: from the perspectives of residents (in terms of self-esteem, increase of social problems, car traffic, cultural self-development and entertainment); and for the host territory (in terms of economic development, price level, destination image and environment). The paper analyzes the case study of a hallmark event of the European Rally Championship – the Azores Rally.

Design/methodology/approach

During the Azores Rally of 2014, 669 inhabitants on São Miguel Island answered a survey. The questionnaire assessed 12 items that are ex ante quality of life (QOL) indicators, ten items of event attributes and overall satisfaction with the event and nine items of event impact perceptions.

Findings

The satisfaction with the event is positively influenced by the host destination’s overall QOL, particularly by the entertainment and local gastronomy and is reinforced by the event-management mix. On other hand, the QOL attributes rather than the event performance indicators determine the perceptions of the promotion of image destination and economic development. The event spectacle level has a particular influence on the residents’ self-esteem.

Practical implications

The paper discusses the implications for public decision-makers, tour operators and event managers, focusing on the community as an important driver for placemaking.

Social implications

This type of event has an impact on residents’ self-esteem, thus enhancing their QOL and hospitality.

Originality/value

This study supports the role of a peripheral island’s community as an active stakeholder, which interacts with the event organization’s key success factors.

Details

Journal of Place Management and Development, vol. 11 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1753-8335

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 13 September 2019

Alan Fyall and Brian Garrod

Destinations are focal points for tourist activity and thus for the study of tourism. They are, however, notoriously difficult to manage due to their complex systems of…

1959

Abstract

Purpose

Destinations are focal points for tourist activity and thus for the study of tourism. They are, however, notoriously difficult to manage due to their complex systems of stakeholders. Such complexity implies that destinations are driven by a wide range of forces in their internal and external environments. The purpose of this paper is to highlight the diversity and depth of the challenges at play in destination management and, in doing so, review the primary contributions in the field.

Design/methodology/approach

This is a "perspective" paper (i.e. critical literature review).

Findings

The study of destinations remains an area of active research interest, with the many challenges that arise from within and external to destinations offering much food for thought with respect to their longevity as viable, sustainable and competitive places for tourists to visit. For the future, the need to view destinations as part of a wider system is paramount with them being inescapable from debates on urban planning, economic inequality, transportation and housing and the omnipresence of all things “smart”. Such debates need to incorporate both tourists and resident communities, as the well-being and quality of life of both groups is under threat in many destinations, particularly heritage and culturally rich city destinations around the world, where the term “overtourism” is increasingly heard.

Research limitations/implications

This study has implications for the integrated and more holistic management of tourist destinations.

Practical implications

This is a "perspective" paper, so it does not offer individual practical implications for destinations. Moreover, it offers a concise and precise summary of core studies in the field and provides a platform for a more future-looking critical debate on the sustainable management of tourist destinations.

Social implications

Looking ahead, destinations need to be considered as part of a wider system, one that is inclusive of urban planning, economic inequality, transportation and housing, and “smart” initiatives among others. Most importantly, the views of tourist and resident communities need to be considered and incorporated into future planning at the destination level with wellbeing and quality of life indicators being used to identify the real benefits of tourism to both communities.

Originality/value

Integrated and holistic forms of destination management is the way forward, with the exponential growth of technology, as well as the need to manage the exchange of knowledge and data at the destination level, critical to the sustainability of the competitive destination long into the future.

Details

Tourism Review, vol. 75 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1660-5373

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 17 May 2021

Asli D.A. Tasci, Alan Fyall and Kyle Maurice Woosnam

This study aims to uncover socio-demographic, psychographic and behavioral characteristics of sustainable consumers as a means to advance the demand for sustainability…

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Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to uncover socio-demographic, psychographic and behavioral characteristics of sustainable consumers as a means to advance the demand for sustainability practices by the tourism and hospitality industry. Socio-demographic and psychographic variables were tested for their influence on an individual’s self-assessment as a sustainable consumer, which was then tested for its influence on behavioral outcomes in the form of environmental and social sustainability concerns, objects of sustainability concerns, subjects considered responsible for sustainability and tourism choice vis-à-vis mass vs alternative forms of tourism.

Design/methodology/approach

Because of the paucity of a well-established and robust theory on the characteristics of sustainable consumers, both content analysis of the literature and quantitative analysis of survey data were used to identify the socio-demographic, psychographic and behavioral characteristics of consumers. Plausible variables identified in the literature were filtered through principal component analysis and ordinary least squares regression analysis to fine-tune the variables a priori to develop a suitable model, which was subjected to partial least squares-structural equation modeling to further trim variables a posteriori by testing their reliability and validity.

Findings

Understanding who sustainable consumers are and what they are likely to believe and do is imperative for increasing sustainable practices by the industry. The study shows that people who consider themselves to be sustainable consumers are likely to have higher levels of ethical views, be more feminine and more liberal in personality, demonstrate concern with environmental and social sustainability issues, consider all pertinent parties responsible for sustainability and chose alternative forms of tourism over mass tourism. The study implies that general American consumers have the potential to buy into sustainability practices.

Originality/value

Despite researchers’ sporadic attempts to describe different characteristics of sustainable consumers and sustainable tourism consumers, past research has not substantiated a comprehensive description of who is a sustainable consumer in terms of socio-demographics, psychographics and behavioral characteristics. The literature on sustainable consumer characteristics is scarce and atheoretical; thus, the current study sets the stage for the development of this area of work across all sectors of the global tourism and hospitality industry. The model test results provide a clear profile of sustainable tourism consumers in socio-demographic, psychographic and behavioral domains for the industry to respond to.

可持续旅游消费者:社会人口学, 心理变数, 以及行为的特征

摘要

研究目的

本研究旨在揭示可持续消费者的社会人口学, 心理变数, 以及行为的特征, 并以此作为推动旅游业和款待业对可持续发展实践需求的一种手段。本研究首先测试了两个变量:社会人口学特征和心理变数特征对个人作为可持续消费者的自我评估的影响; 然后测试了其对消费者行为性后果的影响, 包括对环境和社会可持续性问题的关注, 关注的主题, 对可持续性问题责任性的关注, 以及针对大众和其他旅游形式选择的比较。

研究设计/方法论/方案

由于缺乏关于可持续消费者特征的公认理论, 本研究采用了对相关文献内容的定性分析和对调查数据的定量分析来识别消费者的社会人口学, 心理变数, 以及行为特征。在建立合适的模型之前, 研究通过采用主成分分析(PCA)和普通最小二乘法(OLS)回归分析, 首先对文献中已识别的合理变量进行过滤和调整。继而基于偏最小二乘-结构方程建模(PLS- SEM)对可靠性和有效性的测试, 来进一步确定后验变量。

研究发现

了解可持续消费者的界定, 以及他们的信念和行为对于行业增加可持续性实践至关重要。该研究表明, 当人们认为自己是可持续消费者时, 他们便可能具有更高水平的道德观念, 具有更加女性化和自由的个性, 表现出对环境和社会可持续性问题的关注, 对可持续发展责任性的考虑更全面, 以及对其他旅游形式选择的偏爱。本篇研究的结果显示出普通美国消费者具有实践可持续性行为的潜力。

独创性/价值

尽管以往的研究曾零星地尝试描述可持续消费者和可持续旅游消费者的不同特征, 但并未从社会人口学, 心理变数, 以及行为特征这几个方面去全面地界定和证明可持续消费者。文献中依然缺乏关于对可持续消费者特征更加理论性地讨论。因此, 本研究旨在为全球旅游业和款待业的各个领域对于可持续旅游的讨论和发展奠定基础。模型测试的结果也为行业提供了一个关于可持续旅游消费者的社会人口学, 心理变数, 以及行为特征的理论框架, 以供行业响应。

El consumidor de turismo sostenible: Características sociodemográficas, psicográficas, y de comportamiento

Propósito

Este estudio busca revelar las características sociodemográficas, psicográficas, y de comportamiento de los consumidores responsables para promover la demanda de prácticas de sostenibilidad en la industria del turismo y la hospitalidad. Se evaluaron variables sociodemográficas y psicográficas para determinar su influencia sobre la autoevaluación de un individuo como consumidor responsable, que después se evaluó para determinar su influencia en resultados conductuales, específicamente preocupaciones de sostenibilidad medioambiental y social, objectos de preocupaciones de sostenibilidad, sujetos considerados responsables de la sostenibilidad, y la elección de turismo de masas versus turismo alternativo.

Diseño/metodología/método

Debido a la falta de teoría robusta y bien establecida sobre las características de los consumidores responsables, un análisis de contenidos de la literatura y un análisis cuantitativo de datos obtenidos a través de una encuesta se utilizaron para identificar las características sociodemográficas, psicográficas, y de comportamiento de los consumidores. Las variables plausibles identificadas en la literatura fueron filtradas a través de un análisis de componentes principales (ACP) y un análisis de regresión por mínimos cuadrados ordinarios (MCO) para afinar a priori las variables para el desarrollo de un modelo adecuado, el cual fue evaluado utilizando un modelo de ecuaciones estructurales por el método de mínimos cuadrados parciales (PLS-SEM por sus siglas en inglés) que permitió seguir afinando las variables a posteriori por medio de la evaluación de su confiabilidad y validez.

Resultados

Entender quiénes son los consumidores responsables y qué son propensos a creer y hacer es imperativo para aumentar las prácticas sostenibles en la industria. El estudio demuestra que las personas que se consideran consumidores responsables son más propensas a tener niveles más altos de opiniones éticas, a tener personalidades más femeninas y liberales, a demostrar preocupación por los problemas de sostenibilidad medioambiental y social, a considerar a todas las partes pertinentes como responsables de la sostenibilidad, y a escoger formas alternativas de turismo en vez de turismo de masas. El estudio sugiere que los consumidores americanos en general tienen el potencial de apoyar prácticas sostenibles.

Originalidad/valor

A pesar de los intentos esporádicos de otros investigadores para describir las diferentes características del consumidor responsable y de los consumidores de turismo sostenible, las investigaciones anteriores no han generado una descripción completa de quién es un consumidor responsable en términos de sus características sociodemográficas, psicográficas, y de comportamiento. La literatura sobre las características del consumidor responsable es escasa y sin bases teóricas; por lo tanto, este estudio sienta las bases para el desarrollo de esta área de investigación en todos los sectores de la industria global del turismo y la hospitalidad. Los resultados de la evaluación del modelo proporcionan un perfil claro de los consumidores de turismo sostenible en los ámbitos sociodemográficos, psicográficos, y de comportamiento para que la industria responda.

Article
Publication date: 1 August 2010

Yue Pan, Xuebao Song, Ayalla Goldschmidt and Warren French

The purpose of the study is to investigate what values are now important to young American and Chinese managers, since they profile the direction in which their country is…

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Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of the study is to investigate what values are now important to young American and Chinese managers, since they profile the direction in which their country is headed. It aims to explore if the ethical values of young executives in different countries are converging to a common global business culture. It also aims to argue that the individualism‐collectivism value dimension by itself does not capture the differences between the Chinese and American sample members. The vertical‐horizontal dimension, in contrast, seems to better delineate the value orientations among young executives in the two countries.

Design/methodology/approach

In this two‐phase study, both attitudinal and scenario‐based measurements are applied to assess the strength of work value orientations among similar subjects in China and the USA.

Findings

In study 1, Chinese respondents score significantly higher on a hierarchical‐vertical dimension than do the Americans, although the two groups do not differ significantly on the collectivism‐individualism dimension. In study 2, which entails resolving an ethical dilemma, the American subjects apply Egalitarianism as their most frequent expressed value, reflecting their horizontal perspective. The Chinese subjects, in contrast, rely strongly on a traditional vertical value system to resolve the ethical dilemma. Although both American and Chinese negotiators show a collectivist as well as an individualist orientation, their focuses are fundamentally different.

Originality/value

The well‐established collectivism/individualism cultural dimension has been heavily used in cross‐cultural studies, sometimes without much discretion. This study was undertaken as a preliminary attempt to outline the cultural patterns observed among young managers in America and China. The paper argues that cross‐cultural differences underlying ethical conflicts should not be reduced to the single value dimension of individualism/collectivism.

Details

Cross Cultural Management: An International Journal, vol. 17 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1352-7606

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 January 1987

Alan Hallsworth

The choice of a disused airport at Portsmouth for the siting of a Safeway superstore, opened in March of this year, may seem odd as there were only 700 houses scheduled to…

Abstract

The choice of a disused airport at Portsmouth for the siting of a Safeway superstore, opened in March of this year, may seem odd as there were only 700 houses scheduled to be built on the site and there were no others within at least a mile. Furthermore, the Safeway unit became the tenth superstore to open in the Portsmouth travel‐to‐work area.

Details

Retail and Distribution Management, vol. 15 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0307-2363

Book part
Publication date: 17 February 2022

Theodore Greene

This chapter draws on 10 years of ethnographic fieldwork collected in gay bars from three American cities to explore the strategies LGBTQ subcultures deploy to recreate…

Abstract

This chapter draws on 10 years of ethnographic fieldwork collected in gay bars from three American cities to explore the strategies LGBTQ subcultures deploy to recreate meaningful places within the vestiges of local queer nightlife. As gentrification and social acceptance accelerate the closures of LGBTQ-specific bars and nightclubs worldwide, venues that once served a specific LGBTQ subculture (i.e., leather bars) expand their offerings to incorporate displaced LGBTQ subcultures. Attending to how LGBTQ subcultures might appropriate designated spaces within a gay venue to support community (nightlife complexes), how management and LGBT subcultures temporally circumscribe subcultural practices and traditions to create fleeting, but recurring places (episodic places), and how patrons might disrupt an existing production of place by imposing practices associated with a discrepant LGBTQ subculture(place ruptures), this chapter challenges the notion of “the gay bar” as a singular place catering to a specific subculture. Instead, gay bars increasingly constitute a collection of places within the same space, which may shift depending on its use by patrons occupying the space at any given moment. Beyond the investigation of gay bars, this chapter contributes to the growing sociological literature exploring the multifaceted, unstable, and ephemeral nature of place and place-making in the postmodern city.

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