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Article
Publication date: 9 May 2019

Alain Klarsfeld, Lena Knappert, Angela Kornau, Faith Wambura Ngunjiri and Barbara Sieben

The purpose of this paper is to further restore diversity and equality to its national contexts by presenting new and so far less visible perspectives from…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to further restore diversity and equality to its national contexts by presenting new and so far less visible perspectives from under-researched countries.

Design/methodology/approach

This special issue consists of five articles representing four countries and one country-cluster: Bangladesh, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Ethiopia, Korea and the English-speaking Caribbean. Three of the contributions are focused on gender diversity, while the remaining two are more general descriptions of diversity challenges and policies in the respective countries (namely, Bosnia and Herzegovina, and the English-speaking Caribbean).

Findings

In addition to providing an overview of this issue’s articles, this paper highlights developments and current themes in country-specific equality and diversity scholarship. In particular, drawing on the special issue’s five papers, and building on the main threads that weave the special issue together, the authors show both the relevance of (some) western theories while also pointing to the need for reformulation of others.

Research limitations/implications

The authors conclude with a call to further explore under-researched contexts and especially to develop locally relevant, culture-sensitive theoretical frameworks.

Originality/value

How do smaller and less developed countries experience equality and diversity concepts? How are their approaches different from those experienced in already researched countries, or, on the contrary, what commonalities can be found found among them? How do theoretical frameworks originated in the West apply (or not) in these less studied countries? Are new, locally grounded frameworks needed to better capture the developments at play? Such are questions addressed by the contributions to this special issue.

Details

Equality, Diversity and Inclusion: An International Journal, vol. 38 no. 7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2040-7149

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Article
Publication date: 24 June 2020

Rana Haq, Alain Klarsfeld, Angela Kornau and Faith Wambura Ngunjiri

The purpose of this paper is to present the diversity and equality perspectives from the national context of India and introduce a special issue about equality, diversity…

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1395

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to present the diversity and equality perspectives from the national context of India and introduce a special issue about equality, diversity and inclusion (EDI) in India.

Design/methodology/approach

This special issue consists of six articles on current EDI issues in India. The first three of the contributions are focused on descriptions of diversity challenges and policies regarding caste and disabilities, while the remaining three papers address gender diversity.

Findings

In addition to providing an overview of this issue's articles, this paper highlights developments and current themes in India's country-specific equality and diversity scholarship. Drawing on the special issue's six papers, the authors show the relevance of Western theories while also pointing to the need for reformulation of others in the context of India.

Research limitations/implications

The authors conclude with a call to further explore diversity in India and to develop locally relevant, culture-sensitive theoretical frameworks. Religious and economic diversity should receive more attention in future diversity management scholarship in the Indian context.

Originality/value

How does India experience equality and diversity concepts? How are India's approaches similar or different from those experienced in other countries? How do theoretical frameworks originated in the West apply in India? Are new, locally grounded frameworks needed to better capture the developments at play? These questions are addressed by the contributions to this special issue.

Details

Equality, Diversity and Inclusion: An International Journal, vol. 39 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2040-7149

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Article
Publication date: 1 August 2016

Alain Klarsfeld, Eddy S Ng, Lize Booysen, Liza Castro Christiansen and Bård Kuvaas

This is a special issue introduction on cross-cultural and comparative diversity management (DM). The purpose of this paper is to present five articles that explore and…

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1729

Abstract

Purpose

This is a special issue introduction on cross-cultural and comparative diversity management (DM). The purpose of this paper is to present five articles that explore and examine some of the complexities of equality and DM in various countries around the world.

Design/methodology/approach

In this introductory paper, the authors provide an overview and the current state of literature on comparative research on equality and diversity. The authors also gathered a list of indices that is helpful as secondary data for informing comparative and cross-national research in this domain.

Findings

To date, comparative work involving two or more countries is scarce with Canada/USA comparisons first appearing in the 1990s, followed by other groupings of countries a decade later. Existing comparative work has started to uncover the dialectics of voluntary and mandated action: both complement each other, although the order in which they appear vary from context to context. This work also acknowledges that there are varying degrees of intensity in the way that legislations may constrain employer action in encouraging a more diverse workforce, and that there is more than a binary choice between blind equality of rights (identity blind) and quota-based policies (affirmative action) available to decision makers.

Originality/value

The comparative nature of these papers allows the reader to compare and contrast the different approaches to the adoption and implementation of DM. The authors also draw attention to several areas in cross-cultural DM research that have been understudied and deserve attention.

Details

Cross Cultural & Strategic Management, vol. 23 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2059-5794

Keywords

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Book part
Publication date: 18 October 2017

Alain Klarsfeld

In this chapter, we first show how the concept of competency, and management of or by competency, can be a factor in helping more people find employment, improve…

Abstract

In this chapter, we first show how the concept of competency, and management of or by competency, can be a factor in helping more people find employment, improve employability and develop competency, thus contributing to increased diversity in the workforce at every level of an organisation. We then examine a different part of the literature, more closely related to organisational learning, which finds that deviance and diversity can potentially boost competency. Subsequently, we look at diversity management first as an organisational competency, then as an individual competency. Concerning the reasons for the spread of management by competency and diversity management, we shall see that their respective advocates employ the same rhetoric of economic rationality, with both types of practice being justified by an objective change in the environment and, for this reason, presented as unavoidable and to some extent as simply “moving with the times”. In opposition to this supposed rationality as seen by companies, we will show that, in France, the two concepts of competency and diversity interact closely with institutional processes of mimetism, normalisation and coercion. In the final section, we shall look more closely at critical views of management by competency and diversity, as the criticisms of the two concepts are very similar and question their (possible) claims to be propelling society towards a fairer society.

Details

Management and Diversity
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78635-489-1

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Article
Publication date: 1 August 2016

Valerie Caven, Elena Navarro-Astor and Marie Diop

Despite initiatives designed to encourage more women, the construction industry and its associated professions remain resolutely male dominated and the situation shows…

Abstract

Purpose

Despite initiatives designed to encourage more women, the construction industry and its associated professions remain resolutely male dominated and the situation shows little signs of changing. Reporting on the findings of an exploratory study which examines the transfer of Equality Policy into practice in three European countries: the UK, France and Spain, the purpose of this paper is to provide cross-national comparisons of the implementation of gender initiatives in a single profession, that of architecture.

Design/methodology/approach

In total, 66 semi-structured interviews were carried out in the qualitative paradigm with women architects in the UK, France and Spain.

Findings

Findings are twofold: first, the research indicates that there are many weaknesses in the support offered and in the design of the initiatives which serve to discourage women rather than encourage them and second, there is a clear need for the dominant body within the industry – the men – to provide the impetus for change.

Originality/value

The research is unique in that it offers a cross-national comparison of the situation within a single profession in a male-dominated industry which has attracted much attention for its lack of diversity and its reluctance to embrace change.

Details

Cross Cultural & Strategic Management, vol. 23 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2059-5794

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 1 August 2016

Akram Al Ariss and Yusuf M Sidani

The purpose of this paper is to argue that national history plays an important role in formulations of workplace religious diversity strategies and practices. It builds on…

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1153

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to argue that national history plays an important role in formulations of workplace religious diversity strategies and practices. It builds on a discussion of the organization of religion in the workplace in two countries, namely, France and Lebanon.

Design/methodology/approach

This is a conceptual paper that provides an analysis into how national history plays an important role in formulations of workplace diversity strategies and practices.

Findings

The paper shows how religion has historically been organized and deployed in contemporary France and Lebanon by the same colonial power, albeit in different ways. While the workplace in France remains religiously neutral in the context of its national labor market, the colonial power has largely contributed to organized religion in contemporary organizations in Lebanon. In analyzing the Lebanese and French cases, it is argued that the use of religious diversity has weakened the process of adopting equal, diverse, and inclusive managerial strategies.

Practical implications

Experiences in both countries suggest a failure of “blind neutrality” in the case of France, and another failure of a form of positive discrimination in the case of Lebanon. The authors draw lessons from those two experiences and propose future directions of how policy makers/legislators and organizations can advance and capture more equal, diverse, and inclusive diversity strategies.

Originality/value

The above two cases offer rich lessons for religious diversity scholarship and practice. The paper contributes to the literature on diversity in the workplace by questioning the organization of religious diversity in two countries that are under researched in management and organization studies.

Details

Cross Cultural & Strategic Management, vol. 23 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2059-5794

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Article
Publication date: 12 March 2016

Sebastian Stoermer, Anna Katharina Hildisch and Fabian Jintae Froese

This paper develops a conceptual model in order to increase our understanding of the influence of national culture on the relationship between organizational diversity and…

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2197

Abstract

Purpose

This paper develops a conceptual model in order to increase our understanding of the influence of national culture on the relationship between organizational diversity and inclusion management and inclusion climate.

Design/methodology/approach

Based upon a comprehensive review of diversity and inclusion management literature, we develop a conceptual model.

Findings

The model delineates how national culture influences the effectiveness of diversity and inclusion management practices in establishing an inclusion climate. In particular, we propose that low power distance, high collectivism, low uncertainty avoidance, low masculinity, high long-term orientation, and high indulgence cultures serve as a fertile context for creating an inclusion climate. Furthermore, we discuss how cultural tightness-looseness amplifies or attenuates the effects of national culture.

Research limitations/implications

The paper extends our understanding of the antecedents and boundary conditions of creating an inclusion climate. Future research could provide empirical evidence for the proposed relationships.

Practical implications

The model creates an awareness of the ease or difficulty of establishing an inclusion climate through diversity and inclusion management practices across cultures. Recommendations for developing inclusion climates in various cultural settings are provided.

Originality/value

Our multi-level model enhances our understanding of how the cultural context, i.e. national cultural values and cultural tightness-looseness, influences the emergence of an organizational inclusion climate which is further suggested to positively influence organizational innovation.

Details

Cross Cultural & Strategic Management, vol. 23 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2059-5794

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Article
Publication date: 1 August 2016

Laura Elizabeth Mercer Traavik and Avinash Venkata Adavikolanu

The purpose of this paper is to investigate diversity attitudes of business school students across three national contexts Norway; India and the Czech Republic. These…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate diversity attitudes of business school students across three national contexts Norway; India and the Czech Republic. These three countries are dissimilar from one another in terms of values, such as individualism and collectivism (Hofstede, 2001) self-expression and secular-rationalism (Inglehart and Welzel, 2010) and inequality. The authors wanted to explore similarities and differences in diversity attitudes of respondents from these countries.

Design/methodology/approach

Using the diversity attitude scale developed by De Meuse and Hostager (2001) the authors conducted comparative research and collected data from 234 business school graduate students.

Findings

The authors found that all groups were positive towards diversity, however, there were significant differences in diversity attitudes between the countries. The Czech Republic had the most positive diversity scores and India the least positive.

Research limitations/implications

This study used convenient samples of business students which might not be representative of the future management in these countries. However, the findings do suggest that attitudes towards diversity are generally positive across these very different national contexts.

Practical implications

The findings suggest that in today’s international context people are becoming more positive towards diversity – at least on the conceptual level and a bottom up approach from MNC to diversity management might be easier to implement than previously thought. The preliminary evidence from the study suggests that this first step of introducing diversity policies across national borders might not meet as much resistance as previously anticipated.

Social implications

The movement towards seeing and accepting different others is moving in the right direction.

Originality/value

To use this established diversity attitudes measure across three very different national cultures. In the literature there is a call for more comparative research on diversity management.

Details

Cross Cultural & Strategic Management, vol. 23 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2059-5794

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Article
Publication date: 10 June 2014

Alain Klarsfeld

– Little is known qualitatively about how men become involved in diversity research. The purpose of this paper is to address a part of the gap in this type of research.

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196

Abstract

Purpose

Little is known qualitatively about how men become involved in diversity research. The purpose of this paper is to address a part of the gap in this type of research.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper provides a self-reflective account of how the author became involved in diversity work.

Findings

The author argues that “doing diversity” can be said to reflect an implicit “tempered radical” (Meyerson and Scully, 1995) approach which triggered deep-level concerns about a particular invisible trait that – up to the present paper –the author had never addressed in the research.

Research limitations/implications

The main limitation is that the contribution is based on a self-reflective account and can only be taken as a possibility among many possibilities; not as a representative situation.

Practical implications

The diversity concept's vagueness which is often criticized for diluting pre-existing concerns about gender (and other) strands, appears to have the potential of helping male researchers to become aware of diversity strands they had never dared to address before, and to become aware of some of the male privileges they had enjoyed unknowingly.

Social implications

The paper illuminates that white males can benefit from working on the concept of diversity. Having been induced to work on diversity from social pressures rather than from a personal initiative does not reduce the pleasure, excitement and learning drawn from doing diversity-related work.

Originality/value

No paper to the author's knowledge focuses on male diversity research in France, an up-to-now silent area.

Details

Equality, Diversity and Inclusion: An International Journal, vol. 33 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2040-7149

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Article
Publication date: 25 September 2009

Alain Klarsfeld and Anne‐Francoise Bender

The purpose of this paper is to report upon the “Diversity and equal opportunities” Special Interest Group of the Francophone Association of Research in Human Resource…

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3344

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to report upon the “Diversity and equal opportunities” Special Interest Group of the Francophone Association of Research in Human Resource Management (AGRH), which held its first international conference on “Gender and diversity in organizations”, at the ESCPEAP European Management School in Paris in January 2009.

Design/methodology/approach

Equal opportunity and diversity management are relatively recent research fields in Continental Europe, and particularly in France, however there were 95 conference participants who attended two plenary sessions, four workshops and one round table.

Findings

Sub‐themes were: diversity management and gender equality; Work‐life practices and equality policies between women and men; gender stereotypes and management; and women's and men's careers. The workshops covered: diversity management and gender equity; work‐life practices; women and men's careers; and social representations and stereotypes.

Originality/value

This paper provides an informative overview of the conference which was original in being co‐sponsored by The Emilie du Chatelet Institute – the first research network for developing and publishing research on women, sex and gender in France. The co‐sponsor was the IAE Gustave Eiffel (Business studies department of the Paris 12 University).

Details

Equal Opportunities International, vol. 28 no. 7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0261-0159

Keywords

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