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Article

Harijono Djojodihardjo

The purpose of this paper is to explore the possibilities of introducing a number of visionary and pioneering ideas and upcoming enabling technologies for a conceptual and…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to explore the possibilities of introducing a number of visionary and pioneering ideas and upcoming enabling technologies for a conceptual and aerodynamic design of green business jet aircraft to meet various requirements within Green and N + 2 Aircraft framework, and at the same time, to meet the requirements of air transportation demand, economic growth and environmental conservation.

Design/methodology/approach

A synthesis of various aircraft design methodologies has been carried out through iterative optimization to arrive at the conceptually designed aircraft with novel concept with optimum performance within the subsonic flight regimes. Major ideas derived from D8 and other novel concepts are appropriately applied in the work, which starts with fuel efficient motivation, and followed by wing aerodynamics and other critical factors related to the design requirements and objectives.

Findings

Through a meticulous effort following the synthesized design methodologies in the conceptual design phase, a conceptual design of a quad-bubble business jets with a set of specifications that meet the green and N + 2 aircraft technology requirements and exhibit promising performances is proposed and assessed within recent aircraft technology development.

Research limitations/implications

The research work is limited to conceptual design and analytical work which should be followed by further iterative steps incorporating experiments and detailed structural and aerodynamic computations.

Practical implications

The conceptual design proposed can be utilized as a baseline for further practical step in an aircraft development project.

Social implications

The conceptual design proposed could be utilized for business and economic study for future air transportation system.

Originality/value

The work is original, incorporating review of state-of-the-art technology, environmental requirements and a synthesis of a novel product.

Details

Aircraft Engineering and Aerospace Technology, vol. 90 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1748-8842

Keywords

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Article

Maxim Tyan, Jungwon Yoon, Nhu Van Nguyen, Jae-Woo Lee and Sangho Kim

Major changes of an aircraft configuration are conducted during the early design stage. It is important to include the airworthiness regulations at this stage while there…

Abstract

Purpose

Major changes of an aircraft configuration are conducted during the early design stage. It is important to include the airworthiness regulations at this stage while there is extensive freedom for designing. The purpose of this paper is to introduce an efficient design framework that integrates airworthiness guidelines and documentation at the early design stage.

Design/methodology/approach

A new design and optimization process is proposed that logically includes the airworthiness regulations as design parameters and constraints by constructing a certification database. The design framework comprises requirements analysis, preliminary sizing, conceptual design synthesis and loads analysis. A design certification relation table (DCRT) describes the legal regulations in terms of parameters and values suitable for use in design optimization.

Findings

The developed framework has been validated and demonstrated for the design of a Federal Aviation Regulations (FAR) 23 four-seater small aircraft. The validation results show an acceptable level of accuracy to be applied during the early design stage. The total mass minimization problem has been successfully solved while satisfying all the design requirements and certification constraints specified in the DCRT. Moreover, successful compliance with FAR 23 subpart C is demonstrated. The proposed method is a useful tool for design optimization and compliance verifications during the early stages of aircraft development.

Practical implications

The new certification database proposed in this research makes it simpler for engineers to access a large amount of legal documentation related to airworthiness regulations and provides a link between the regulation text and actual design parameters and their bounds.

Originality/value

The proposed design optimization framework integrates the certification database that is built of several types of legal documents such as regulations, advisory circulars and standards. The Engineering Requirements and Guide summarizes all the documents and design requirements into a single document. The DCRT is created as a summary table that indicates the design parameters affected by a given regulation(s), the design stage at which the parameter can be evaluated and its value bounds. The introduction of the certification database into the design optimization framework significantly reduces the engineer’s load related for airworthiness regulations.

Details

Aircraft Engineering and Aerospace Technology, vol. 91 no. 7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1748-8842

Keywords

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Article

Christopher Jouannet, Patrick Berry, Tomas Melin, Kristian Amadori, David Lundström and Ingo Staack

The purpose of this paper is to present the latest subscale demonstrator aircraft developed at Linköping University. It has been built as part of a study initiated by the…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to present the latest subscale demonstrator aircraft developed at Linköping University. It has been built as part of a study initiated by the Swedish Material Board (FMV) on a Generic Future Fighter aircraft. The paper will cover different aspects of the performed work: from paper study realised by SAAB to the first flight of the scaled demonstrator. The intention of the paper is to describe what has been realised and explain how the work is may be used to fit within aircraft conceptual design.

Design/methodology/approach

The approach has been to address the challenges proposed by the customer of the demonstrator, how to design, manufacture and operate a scaled demonstrator of an aircraft study in conceptual design within five months. Similar research projects have been reviewed in order to perform the current work.

Findings

The results obtained so far have led to new questions. In particular, the project indicated that more research is needed within the area of subscale flight testing for usage in aircraft conceptual design, since a scaled demonstrator is likely to answer some questions but will probably open up new ones.

Research limitations/implications

The current research is just in its infancy and does not bring any final conclusion but does, however, offer several guidelines for future works. Since the aircraft study was an early phase concept study, not much data are available for validation or comparison. Therefore, the paper is not presenting new methods or general conclusions.

Practical implications

Results from a conceptual aircraft study and a realisation of a scaled prototype are presented, which show that scaled flight testing may be used with some restriction in conceptual design.

Originality/value

The value of this paper is to show that universities can be involved in prototype development and can work in close collaboration with industries to address issues and solutions within aircraft conceptual design.

Details

Aircraft Engineering and Aerospace Technology, vol. 84 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0002-2667

Keywords

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Article

Arne Seitz, Julian Bijewitz, Sascha Kaiser and Guido Wortmann

The purpose of this paper is the multi-disciplinary conceptual investigation of a propulsive fuselage (PF) aircraft layout allowing for new performance synergies through…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is the multi-disciplinary conceptual investigation of a propulsive fuselage (PF) aircraft layout allowing for new performance synergies through closely coupled propulsion/airframe integration. The discussed aircraft layout facilitates the ingestion of the fuselage boundary layer and the utilization of wake filling, thus eliminating a significant share of fuselage drag.

Design/methodology/approach

Based on consistent book-keeping standards for conventionally installed and highly integrated propulsion systems, key aspects of conceptualisation regarding airframe and propulsion system are presented. As a result of this, a PF aircraft configuration is proposed featuring a fuselage fan power plant in conjunction with two under-wing podded power plants. Parametric models for integrated aircraft and propulsion system sizing and performance analysis are discussed that are suitable for the consistent mapping of the characteristics intrinsic to a PF layout. In an initial benchmarking exercise, the vehicular efficiency potentials of the previously identified PF configuration are evaluated against an advanced conventional reference aircraft.

Findings

During benchmarking, it was found that a best and balanced design for the proposed PF aircraft layout yields an increase in vehicular efficiency of approximately 10 per cent compared to the advanced conventional reference aircraft.

Practical implications

The paper gives the reader an idea for the efficiency potentials achievable through a PF aircraft configuration, as well as guidelines for aircraft sizing and integrational aspects. It may serve as a basis for advanced studies in the future.

Originality/value

The conceptual investigation of the PF concept idea, contributes to establishing the initial technical feasibility of this novel approach to synergistic propulsion system integration. The methods presented in this paper allow for the multi-disciplinary conceptual design sizing of a PF aircraft.

Details

Aircraft Engineering and Aerospace Technology: An International Journal, vol. 86 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0002-2667

Keywords

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Article

Sergio Chiesa, Marco Fioriti and Roberta Fusaro

The purpose of this paper is to present a definition of modern configuration for a medium-altitude long-endurance unmanned aerial vehicle (MALE UAV) and its on-board…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to present a definition of modern configuration for a medium-altitude long-endurance unmanned aerial vehicle (MALE UAV) and its on-board systems to obtain a suitable basis for future definitions such as a possible logistic support configuration first hypothesis.

Design/methodology/approach

Starting from high-level requirements, both the UAV conceptual design and on-board systems preliminary design have been carried out through proprietary tools. Then, some peculiarities from previous studies, such as systems advanced UAV alternative energy, have been maintained and confirmed (diesel propulsion and energy storage system).

Findings

The improvement of a component of an aircraft can play a relevant role in the whole system. In the paper, it is considered how a concept of MALE UAV can evolve (this topic is considered by the authors since many years) by incorporating advanced on-board systems concepts.

Practical implications

The numerical results promote and support the use of advanced on-board system solutions and architectures to improve the effectiveness, efficiency and performance of MALE UAVs.

Originality/value

Usually, conceptual and preliminary design phases analyze in-depth the aerodynamic and structural solutions and aircraft performance. In this study, the authors aim to focus on the advanced on-board systems for MALE UAVs. This kind of aircraft is not yet a mature concept, with very few operating machines and many projects in the development phase.

Details

Aircraft Engineering and Aerospace Technology, vol. 88 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1748-8842

Keywords

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Article

Alejandro Sanchez-Carmona and Cristina Cuerno-Rejado

A conceptual design method for composite material stiffened panels used in aircraft tail structures and unmanned aircraft has been developed to bear compression and shear loads.

Abstract

Purpose

A conceptual design method for composite material stiffened panels used in aircraft tail structures and unmanned aircraft has been developed to bear compression and shear loads.

Design/methodology/approach

The method is based on classical laminated theory to fulfil the requirement of building a fast design tool, necessary for this preliminary stage. The design criterion is local and global buckling happen at the same time. In addition, it is considered that the panel does not fail due to crippling, stiffeners column buckling or other manufacturing restrictions. The final geometry is determined by minimising the area and, consequently, the weight of the panel.

Findings

The results obtained are compared with a classical method for sizing stiffened panels in aluminium. The weight prediction is validated by weight reductions in aircraft structures when comparing composite and aluminium alloys.

Research limitations/implications

The work is framed in conceptual design field, so hypotheses like material or stiffeners geometry shall be taken a priori. These hypotheses can be modified if it is necessary, but even so, the methodology continues being applicable.

Practical implications

The procedure presented in this paper allows designers to know composite structure weight of aircraft tails in commercial aviation or any lifting surface in unmanned aircraft field, even for unconventional configurations, in early stages of the design, which is an aid for them.

Originality/value

The contribution of this paper is the development of a new rapid methodology for conceptual design of composite panels and the feasible application to aircraft tails and also to unmanned aircraft.

Details

Aircraft Engineering and Aerospace Technology, vol. 90 no. 8
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1748-8842

Keywords

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Article

Cristina Cuerno-Rejado and Alejandro Sanchez-Carmona

The purpose of this study of which this work is only the first part, is the development of conceptual design tools to perform an optimized design of the rear fuselage and…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study of which this work is only the first part, is the development of conceptual design tools to perform an optimized design of the rear fuselage and tail surfaces. The development of a new and extensive database of transport aircraft and an analysis of certain general, rear fuselage and horizontal stabilizer parameters of the aircraft are presented in this paper.

Design/methodology/approach

In addition to the development of a comprehensive high accurate database, linear and non-linear correlations between different parameters of the aircraft have been established. Data were analyzed using comparison criteria between aircraft database based on the mission, the number of engines installed or arrangement of the tail surfaces.

Findings

It has been possible to obtain very relevant, linear and non-linear correlations for critical design parameters to optimize the design of the rear fuselage and horizontal tail.

Research limitations/implications

In the case of the tail cone, the data have not yielded significant correlations. On the other hand, there are some regressions that do not work well in some cases and for which it would be good to further expand the database.

Practical implications

Results obtained greatly improve the existing methods for conceptual design, which usually pay no attention to the rear part of the aircraft. Besides, these new procedures are adapted to different categories of aircraft, allowing greater optimization of the designs.

Originality/value

The novel contribution of this work is focused on the development of a new high-fidelity database and includes many more aircraft than any other work previously released. Also, new correlations, linear and non-linear, additional parameters not considered in previous studies, and differentiated by category of aircraft studies are provided.

Details

Aircraft Engineering and Aerospace Technology: An International Journal, vol. 88 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0002-2667

Keywords

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Article

Hyeong-Uk Park, Jae-Woo Lee, Joon Chung and Kamran Behdinan

The purpose of this paper is to study the consideration of uncertainty from analysis modules for aircraft conceptual design by implementing uncertainty-based design

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to study the consideration of uncertainty from analysis modules for aircraft conceptual design by implementing uncertainty-based design optimization methods. Reliability-Based Design Optimization (RBDO), Possibility-Based Design Optimization (PBDO) and Robust Design Optimization (RDO) methods were developed to handle uncertainties of design optimization. The RBDO method is found suitable for uncertain parameters when sufficient information is available. On the other hand, the PBDO method is proposed when uncertain parameters have insufficient information. The RDO method can apply to both cases. The RBDO, PBDO and RDO methods were considered with the Multidisciplinary Design Optimization (MDO) method to generate conservative design results when low fidelity analysis tools are used.

Design/methodology/approach

Methods combining MDO with RBDO, PBDO and RDO were developed and have been applied to a numerical analysis and an aircraft conceptual design. This research evaluates and compares the characteristics of each method in both cases.

Findings

The RBDO result can be improved when the amount of data concerning uncertain parameters is increased. Conversely, increasing information regarding uncertain parameters does not improve the PBDO result. The PBDO provides a conservative result when less information about uncertain parameters is available.

Research limitations/implications

The formulation of RDO is more complex than other methods. If the uncertainty information is increased in aircraft conceptual design case, the accuracy of RBDO will be enhanced.

Practical implications

This research increases the probability of a feasible design when it considers the uncertainty. This result gives more practical optimization results on a conceptual design level for fabrication.

Originality/value

It is RBDO, PBDO and RDO methods combined with MDO that satisfy the target probability when the uncertainties of low fidelity analysis models are considered.

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Article

Anatolii Kretov

The purpose of this work is to further develop the methodology for calculating the aircraft take-off mass and its main functional components for the conceptual analysis…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this work is to further develop the methodology for calculating the aircraft take-off mass and its main functional components for the conceptual analysis and synthesis of new projects.

Design/methodology/approach

The method is based on the assessment of changes in the take-off gross mass (TOGM) of the already developed project or already existing a basic version of the aircraft when making local mass changes for its modification or for the numerical researches to create a more advanced project. The method is based on the “sensitivity factors of mass” (SFM) of aircraft, which represents the ratio of TOGM to initial (local) mass changes of its main functional components. The method of analytical refined calculation of SFM for the initial mass change and the main aerodynamic characteristics is given.

Findings

In comparison with the long-known method based on weight (mass) growth factors, which were considered constant, this method takes into account the dependence from the value of the initial local mass change and its functional purpose.

Practical implications

This method allows the designer to calculate more strictly the final changes in the TOGM on the initial stages of conceptual design when finding new project solutions. Numerical calculations are given on the example of passenger aircraft. The dependence of SFM and TOGM and its functional masses on the value of the initial change of the structure mass are shown. This method is used in the educational process at the college of Aerospace Engineering in the Aircraft Design department.

Originality/value

The considered method based on SFM is simple and convenient and more accurate for conducting project research on many project parameters when analyzing and synthesizing a new project.

Details

Aircraft Engineering and Aerospace Technology, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1748-8842

Keywords

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Article

Jacek Mieloszyk and Andrzej Tarnowski

This paper aims to describe the enhancement of the numerical method for conceptual phase of electric aircraft design.

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to describe the enhancement of the numerical method for conceptual phase of electric aircraft design.

Design/methodology/approach

The algorithm provides a balance between lift force and weight of the aircraft, together with drag and thrust force equilibrium, while modifying design variables. Wing geometry adjustment, mass correction and performance estimation are performed in an iterative process.

Findings

Aircraft numerical model, which is most often very simplified, has a number of new improvements. This enables to make more accurate analyses and to show relationships between design parameters and aircraft performance.

Practical implications

The presented approach can improve design results.

Originality/value

The new methodology, which includes enhanced numerical models for conceptual design, has not been presented before.

Details

Aircraft Engineering and Aerospace Technology, vol. 91 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1748-8842

Keywords

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