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Jeff E. Biddle

This paper explores whether the spread of air conditioning in the United States from 1960 to 1990 affected quality of life in warmer areas enough to influence decisions…

Abstract

This paper explores whether the spread of air conditioning in the United States from 1960 to 1990 affected quality of life in warmer areas enough to influence decisions about where to live, or to change North-South wage and rent differentials. Using measures designed to identify climates in which air conditioning would have made the biggest difference, I found little evidence that the flow of elderly migrants to MSAs with such climates increased over the period. Following Roback (1982), I analyzed data on MSA wages, rents, and climates from 1960 to 1990, and find that the implicit price of these hot summer climates did not change significantly from 1960 to 1980, then became significantly negative in 1990. This contrary to what one would expect if air conditioning made hot summers more bearable. I presented evidence that hot summers are an inferior good, which would explain part of the negative movement in the implicit price of a hot summer, and evidence consistent with the hypothesis that the marginal person migrating from colder to hotter MSAs dislikes summer heat more than does the average resident of a hot MSA, which would also exert downward pressure on the implicit price of a hot summer.

Details

Research in Economic History
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78052-246-3

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Article

Joseph Lai, Francis Yik and Phil Jones

The recession in the late 1990s in Hong Kong has triggered many commercial building owners to cut operation and maintenance (O&M) cost via outsourcing. The purpose of this…

Abstract

Purpose

The recession in the late 1990s in Hong Kong has triggered many commercial building owners to cut operation and maintenance (O&M) cost via outsourcing. The purpose of this paper is to investigate the dominant expenditure on O&M service and examine the relation between extent of outsourcing and rental income of the buildings.

Design/methodology/approach

Experienced O&M practitioners were interviewed to collect both quantitative and qualitative data of the commercial buildings they looked after. The in‐house and outsourced O&M costs, air‐conditioning energy costs, rental incomes, and management and air‐conditioning fees for the buildings were analysed.

Findings

The total air‐conditioning O&M cost is the principal cost item, with the energy cost being the dominant element. The analysis reveals that the extent of outsourcing bore little correlation with the air‐conditioning O&M cost and the rental income.

Research limitations/implications

Further work may take a similar approach to identify the extent and effect of outsourcing other kinds of services that underpin the core business of an organisation.

Practical implications

Varying the extent of outsourcing O&M service was found to be unpromising for enhancing rental performance or cutting O&M expenditure. This is an important point that the building managers should address when considering whether to go for outsourcing.

Originality/value

The findings imply that in the building O&M service industry, it would be more economical to outsource or undertake in‐house the vast majority of O&M work. The focus for cost minimization should be to improve building energy performance rather than reducing labour resources through outsourcing.

Details

Facilities, vol. 26 no. 5/6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0263-2772

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Article

Charisis G. Vrellas and Theoklitos S. Karakatsanis

The purpose of this paper is to describe and categorize calculation methods for conducting a complete air conditioning study. More specifically, this paper is a general…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to describe and categorize calculation methods for conducting a complete air conditioning study. More specifically, this paper is a general review of cooling loads calculation methods, psychrometric calculations for installing a central air conditioning unit, ways of fan coil units connection and air duct calculation methods.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper was based on two pillars: a dissertation for an industrial facility and technical information found after methodical research.

Findings

After a brief reference of the calculation methods and the air conditioning systems installed in this industrial facility, this paper concludes with the most appropriate calculation methods for this industrial facility.

Research limitations/implications

This study describes some calculation methods. Thus, future research could be addressed toward the analysis of more methods.

Practical implications

This paper includes implications for choosing the most appropriate calculation method according to the air conditioning system installed.

Originality/value

The originality of this paper lies in the fact that, except for the theoretical part, there are some examples taken from a case study, thus it can be used as a future guide for selecting methods and systems of industrial air conditioning.

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Article

Richard H. Rooley

Reviews development in air conditioning from cave dwellers to themid 1970s in the UK. Presents an overview of common air conditioningsystems, with their relative merits…

Abstract

Reviews development in air conditioning from cave dwellers to the mid 1970s in the UK. Presents an overview of common air conditioning systems, with their relative merits. Concludes that air conditioning gives increased comfort levels and efficiency. Argues that the design of systems should be user‐led, rather than technology‐driven.

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Property Management, vol. 8 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0263-7472

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Article

Moutaz Khouja, J. William Shelnutt and Michael Wilmot

Extreme temperature and humidity are major causes of errors in industrial precision and in dimensional measurement. In addition, hot and/or humid workplaces have adverse…

Abstract

Extreme temperature and humidity are major causes of errors in industrial precision and in dimensional measurement. In addition, hot and/or humid workplaces have adverse effects on humans which include reduced work time due to more frequent and longer breaks, reduced production rates, and increased error rates. Managers considering investments in air conditioning their manufacturing facilities must weigh many uncertain benefits against more certain costs. In this paper, we identify the benefits resulting from air conditioning manufacturing facilities and develop a Monte Carlo computer simulation model to evaluate investments in air conditioning. The model uses projected incremental cash flows to compute net present value and internal rate of return. Simulation is used to take into account the uncertainty associated with projecting the benefits of air conditioning, deal with possible correlation among some benefits of air conditioning, and sensitize decision makers to the range of possible outcomes. The proposed model is programmed into user‐friendly menu‐driven software which is tested on actual cases and is illustrated in this paper.

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Integrated Manufacturing Systems, vol. 9 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0957-6061

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Article

Stephen Edwards and Terry Wyatt

Air‐conditioning installations in buildings have been the focus of much criticism, with many commentators going so far as to propose a causal connection between sick…

Abstract

Air‐conditioning installations in buildings have been the focus of much criticism, with many commentators going so far as to propose a causal connection between sick buildings and air conditioning.

Details

Facilities, vol. 7 no. 9
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0263-2772

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Article

W.L. Tse, Albert T.P. So, W.L. Chan and Ida K.Y. Mak

To examine the role of predicted mean vote (PMV) in air‐conditioned environments by conducting a thermal comfort study.

Abstract

Purpose

To examine the role of predicted mean vote (PMV) in air‐conditioned environments by conducting a thermal comfort study.

Design/methodology/approach

A formal statistical approach was adopted for the credibility of the study. Thermal measurements and questionnaire filling were carried out in commercial offices to collect the required data. Statistical analysis on the collected data and logical reasoning were then employed to derive the conclusions.

Findings

Provide an evidence to support PMV to be an appropriate thermal comfort index in air‐conditioned environments. Guarantee high productivity of occupants by using PMV in air‐conditioning control.

Research limitations/implications

Future research work should be carried out to investigate any significant relationship between improvement in PMV and the profits gained by occupants inside an air‐conditioned space. With such relationship, it is possible to develop an intelligent air‐conditioning control to yield the most cost‐effective thermal environments for commercial offices.

Practical implications

Air‐conditioning engineers are highly recommended to employ PMV to assess the thermal comfort environment in air‐conditioned offices.

Originality/value

This paper highlights the importance aspect on choosing a thermal comfort index for comfort assessment in air‐conditioned offices. The index itself should not consider adaptive actions. Otherwise, the productivity of occupants would be severely deteriorated. It is well known that PMV is the thermal comfort index that can fulfill this requirement.

Details

Facilities, vol. 23 no. 13/14
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0263-2772

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Article

Agis M. Papadopoulos, Antis Stylianou and Simos Oxizidis

The aim of this paper is to discuss the impact of energy pricing on the implementation of low energy design principles in buildings.

Abstract

Purpose

The aim of this paper is to discuss the impact of energy pricing on the implementation of low energy design principles in buildings.

Design/methodology/approach

The problem of rising air‐conditioning loads is not simply a matter of availability of power‐plants, but also one of the limited time periods over which demand peaks occur. The relationship between the feasibility of technical solutions and pricing policies of electricity is examined by means of a Greek case study, which is representative for Southern Europe.

Findings

The paper finds that in conventional air‐conditioning systems the impact of the peak cooling demand on the building's capital expenditure is low, compared to the operational expenses over the buildings' life cycle. In that sense the latter's reduction lies in the interest of the building's user, rather than the investor. If, however, changes in the pricing policies were to be adopted, annual operational expenses would more than double, making energy saving measures far more attractive. Such a scenario would reflect the Californian experience of 2000. However, it is misleading to think only of covering the demand, which is a product of the building's characteristics. Passive cooling techniques are very efficient in reducing the building's cooling load. The challenge lies in the integration of such techniques and solar cooling technologies, resulting thus in feasible solutions.

Practical implications

The evaluation of energy conservation techniques should be considered under the criterion of embodying the actual marginal operational cost of a utility to its rates, when providing peak loads.

Originality/value

The paper rejects the false dilemma of passive vs active energy conservation approaches, and demonstrates that on the long run the “business as usual” way of keeping electricity rates fairly flat is not only impracticable, but also destructive for energy conservation as such.

Details

Management of Environmental Quality: An International Journal, vol. 17 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1477-7835

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Article

Bennett J. Price

This article discusses the basics of computer‐room air conditioning, an important component of the special environment required by mainframe computers and many…

Abstract

This article discusses the basics of computer‐room air conditioning, an important component of the special environment required by mainframe computers and many mini‐computers as well. Computer room air conditioners differ in some significant ways from “comfort” air‐conditioners, which are designed for the comfort of people rather than machines. These differences make it less than ideal to use air conditioning systems designed for human comfort for computer cooling. The author describes several different types of air‐conditioners, considerations related to the construction of a computer room, and factors that determine air‐conditioning requirements.

Details

Library Hi Tech, vol. 7 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0737-8831

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Article

R.B. SHERBOURNE

AS CONCORDE HAS GROWN considerably in size and capacity since the prototype, the air conditioning system has correspondingly been revised and together with refinements to…

Abstract

AS CONCORDE HAS GROWN considerably in size and capacity since the prototype, the air conditioning system has correspondingly been revised and together with refinements to the air bleed and temperature control aspects of the system now represents as nearly as possible the final production configuration.

Details

Aircraft Engineering and Aerospace Technology, vol. 45 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0002-2667

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