European air transport policy, emerged through the confluence of case law and legislation, in four broad areas: liberalization, safety and security, greening, and the…
European air transport policy, emerged through the confluence of case law and legislation, in four broad areas: liberalization, safety and security, greening, and the external policy. Following the implementation of the single market for air transport, policy shifted to liberalizing and regulating associated services and in recent years to greening, the external aviation policy, and safety and security. Inclusion of air transport in the Environmental Trading Scheme of the European Union exemplifies the European Commission’s proactive stand on bringing the industry in line with emission reduction trajectories of other industries. However, the bid to include flights to third countries in the trading scheme pushed the EU into a controversial position, causing the Commission to halt implementation and to give ICAO time to seek a global multilateral agreement. The chapter also discusses how the nationality clauses in air services agreements breached the Treaty of Rome, and a court ruling to that effect enabled the EC to extend EU liberalization policies beyond the European Union, resulting in the Common Aviation Area with EU fringe countries and the Open Aviation Area with the USA. Another important area of progress was aviation safety, where the EU region is unsurpassed in the world, yet the Commission has pushed the boundary even further, by establishing the European Safety Agency to oversee the European Aviation Safety Management System. Another important area of regulatory development was aviation security, a major focus after the woeful events in 2001, but increasingly under industry scrutiny on costs and effectiveness. The chapter concludes by arguing that in the coming decade, the EU will strive to strengthen its position as a global countervailing power, symbolized in air transport by a leadership position in environmental policy and international market liberalization, exemplified in the EU’s external aviation policy.
Examines measures taken within the European Union framework in order to keep high standards of safety in maritime and air transport. Looks first at maritime transport and ways in which vessels are monitored, minimum safety requirements, the carriage of dangerous goods, pollution, port control, inspectors and their rights, ferry safety and oil tankers. Considers also navigational equipment, transfer of ownership, safe sea policy and the training of seafarers. Addresses similar aviation control including a single aviation market, air traffic control, technical requirements, congestion, accident procedures and liabilities. Suggests that despite the many rules, there is a lack of compliance, detection and enoforcement.
This paper aims to present findings on research funded by the Institution of Occupational Safety and Health (IOSH) on factors contributing to superior safety performance amongst construction firms in the UK – specifically, the level of training received by site managers.
A random sample of 100 construction firms provided details of the type and duration of health and safety (H&S) training received by their site managers. This was analysed against a three point scale: up to two days training; the Site Managers Safety Training Scheme (SMSTS) five days training; and, National/Scottish Vocational Qualification for H&S – Level 3 or above. This was cross‐tabulated with their Accident Incidence Rate (AIR).
The results were as follows: up to two days training gave a mean AIR=1825; SMSTS mean AIR=1566; N/SVQ 3 or above mean AIR=211. This shows that increased durations of training are associated with lower accident rates. If duration is accepted as a measure of “level” of training then the findings support the hypothesis that increased levels of training lead to increased safety performance.
The sample was skewed with over 70 per cent having accident rates lower than the industry average. This is common in such studies and is difficult to control without losing data. It also meant non‐parametric tests were used. The findings cannot be reliably extended to organisations with turnover less than £4m.
These findings add a new dimension to previous studies that have generally compared the mere presence, or otherwise, of training with safety performance.
The paper establishes a baseline in relation to the minimum level of H&S training for site managers as well as providing evidence for increased investment to achieve superior performance.
This study aims to find out the means used for individual, group and organizational learning at work at one air navigation service provider after the initial training…
This study aims to find out the means used for individual, group and organizational learning at work at one air navigation service provider after the initial training period. The study also aims to find out what practices need to be improved to enhance learning at work.
The data for the study were collected over four years from several air traffic control (ATC) units of the organisation using different methods. In total, 155 subjects (operative personnel, supervisors) answered a reporting system questionnaire, 20 supervisors participated in interviews and 142 subjects (operative personnel, supervisors) responded to a safety culture questionnaire.
Several learning methods were used in ATC. Some of them were organisation‐wide and mandatory, but others were dependent on the activity of the unit or a single person. Individuals reported problem areas in operative work and learned from them. Group level learning was not actualized in all units of the organisation. Learning was insufficient at the organisational level.
A reporting system is a useful way of learning for individuals working in complex systems such as ATC. To use it for communicative and organisational learning, however, demands the formation of an integrated learning system for the different parts of the organisation and its stakeholders. This system could support conscious analysis of learning material arising from everyday work. These improvements would contribute to securing safety in the field of aviation during major changes.
The paper provides information on the strengths and weaknesses of learning in one complex, high reliability, work area. The study shows that the latest knowledge regarding learning at work was not utilized effectively.
A Summary by Dr. Alexander Klemin of the Papers Presented Before the Fourteenth Meeting of the Institute held at Columbia University, New York, on January 29–31, 1946…
A Summary by Dr. Alexander Klemin of the Papers Presented Before the Fourteenth Meeting of the Institute held at Columbia University, New York, on January 29–31, 1946. AERODYNAMICS IN spite of increased wing loadings, the use of full span wing flaps has been delayed, because of inability to find a suitable aileron. The Development of a Lateral‐Control System for use with Large‐Span Flaps by I. L. Ashkenas (Northrop Aircraft), outlines the various steps in the aerodynamic development of a retractable aileron system well adapted to the full span flap and successfully employed on the Northrop P‐61. Included is a discussion of the basic data used, the design calculations made, and the effect of structural and mechanical considerations. Changes made as a result of preliminary flight tests are discussed and the final flight‐test results are presented. It is concluded that the use of this retractable aileron system has, in addition to the basic advantage of increased flap span, the following desirable control characteristics: (a) favourable yawing moments, (b) low wing‐torsional loads, (c) small pilot forces, even at high speed.
Although the terrorist attacks on 11 September 2001 can be blamed for a number of problems currently plaguing the US airline industry, their effect on the service and…
Although the terrorist attacks on 11 September 2001 can be blamed for a number of problems currently plaguing the US airline industry, their effect on the service and safety quality of post‐9/11 airlines is mixed. This study places current industry quality in historical context by examining trends in both areas beginning in 1987. The findings indicate that the service quality improved among major US carriers for the period 1987‐1993 but began to deteriorate after this date, although it did not return to 1987 levels. Service quality again improves in 2001 and reaches its best level ever in 2002 as post‐9/11 changes appear to have improved on‐time performance, reduced overbooking, and lowered customer complaints. Two factors identified as important in service and safety quality, maintenance spending and load factor, were also explored. Results indicate that both service and safety quality improve as the level of maintenance spending increases.
TO say that the Twenty‐fourth S.B.A.C. Show was an unqualified success is perhaps to gild the lily. True there were disappointments— the delay which kept the TSR‐2 on the…
TO say that the Twenty‐fourth S.B.A.C. Show was an unqualified success is perhaps to gild the lily. True there were disappointments— the delay which kept the TSR‐2 on the ground until well after the Show being one—but on the whole the British industry was well pleased with Farnborough week and if future sales could be related to the number of visitors then the order books would be full for many years to come. The total attendance at the Show was well over 400,000—this figure including just under 300,000 members of the public who paid to enter on the last three days of the Show. Those who argued in favour of allowing a two‐year interval between the 1962 Show and this one seem to be fully vindicated, for these attendance figures are an all‐time record. This augurs well for the future for it would appear that potential customers from overseas are still anxious to attend the Farnborough Show, while the public attendance figures indicate that Britain is still air‐minded to a very healthy degree. It is difficult to pick out any one feature or even one aircraft as being really outstanding at Farnborough, but certainly the range of rear‐engined civil jets (HS. 125, BAC One‐Eleven, Trident and VCIQ) served as a re‐minder that British aeronautical engineering prowess is without parallel, while the number of rotorcraft to be seen in the flying display empha‐sized the growing importance of the helicopter in both civil and military operations. As far as the value of Farnborough is concerned, it is certainly a most useful shop window for British aerospace products, and if few new orders are actually received at Farnborough, a very large number are announced— as our ’Orders and Contracts' column on page 332 bears witness. It is not possible to cover every exhibit displayed at the Farnborough Show but the following report describes a wide cross‐section beginning with the exhibits of the major airframe and engine companies.