Search results

1 – 10 of over 41000
To view the access options for this content please click here
Book part
Publication date: 25 January 2012

Jeff E. Biddle

This paper explores whether the spread of air conditioning in the United States from 1960 to 1990 affected quality of life in warmer areas enough to influence decisions…

Abstract

This paper explores whether the spread of air conditioning in the United States from 1960 to 1990 affected quality of life in warmer areas enough to influence decisions about where to live, or to change North-South wage and rent differentials. Using measures designed to identify climates in which air conditioning would have made the biggest difference, I found little evidence that the flow of elderly migrants to MSAs with such climates increased over the period. Following Roback (1982), I analyzed data on MSA wages, rents, and climates from 1960 to 1990, and find that the implicit price of these hot summer climates did not change significantly from 1960 to 1980, then became significantly negative in 1990. This contrary to what one would expect if air conditioning made hot summers more bearable. I presented evidence that hot summers are an inferior good, which would explain part of the negative movement in the implicit price of a hot summer, and evidence consistent with the hypothesis that the marginal person migrating from colder to hotter MSAs dislikes summer heat more than does the average resident of a hot MSA, which would also exert downward pressure on the implicit price of a hot summer.

Details

Research in Economic History
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78052-246-3

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 2 November 2012

Charisis G. Vrellas and Theoklitos S. Karakatsanis

The purpose of this paper is to describe and categorize calculation methods for conducting a complete air conditioning study. More specifically, this paper is a general…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to describe and categorize calculation methods for conducting a complete air conditioning study. More specifically, this paper is a general review of cooling loads calculation methods, psychrometric calculations for installing a central air conditioning unit, ways of fan coil units connection and air duct calculation methods.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper was based on two pillars: a dissertation for an industrial facility and technical information found after methodical research.

Findings

After a brief reference of the calculation methods and the air conditioning systems installed in this industrial facility, this paper concludes with the most appropriate calculation methods for this industrial facility.

Research limitations/implications

This study describes some calculation methods. Thus, future research could be addressed toward the analysis of more methods.

Practical implications

This paper includes implications for choosing the most appropriate calculation method according to the air conditioning system installed.

Originality/value

The originality of this paper lies in the fact that, except for the theoretical part, there are some examples taken from a case study, thus it can be used as a future guide for selecting methods and systems of industrial air conditioning.

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 1 February 1990

Richard H. Rooley

Reviews development in air conditioning from cave dwellers to themid 1970s in the UK. Presents an overview of common air conditioningsystems, with their relative merits…

Abstract

Reviews development in air conditioning from cave dwellers to the mid 1970s in the UK. Presents an overview of common air conditioning systems, with their relative merits. Concludes that air conditioning gives increased comfort levels and efficiency. Argues that the design of systems should be user‐led, rather than technology‐driven.

Details

Property Management, vol. 8 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0263-7472

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 1 September 1989

Stephen Edwards and Terry Wyatt

Airconditioning installations in buildings have been the focus of much criticism, with many commentators going so far as to propose a causal connection between sick…

Abstract

Airconditioning installations in buildings have been the focus of much criticism, with many commentators going so far as to propose a causal connection between sick buildings and air conditioning.

Details

Facilities, vol. 7 no. 9
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0263-2772

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 1 March 1989

Bennett J. Price

This article discusses the basics of computer‐room air conditioning, an important component of the special environment required by mainframe computers and many…

Abstract

This article discusses the basics of computer‐room air conditioning, an important component of the special environment required by mainframe computers and many mini‐computers as well. Computer room air conditioners differ in some significant ways from “comfort” air‐conditioners, which are designed for the comfort of people rather than machines. These differences make it less than ideal to use air conditioning systems designed for human comfort for computer cooling. The author describes several different types of air‐conditioners, considerations related to the construction of a computer room, and factors that determine airconditioning requirements.

Details

Library Hi Tech, vol. 7 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0737-8831

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 1 December 1959

Leo Walter

Last month the properties of air were discussed and an introduction was given to the various air treatments necessary for preventing the corrosion of metal in storage…

Abstract

Last month the properties of air were discussed and an introduction was given to the various air treatments necessary for preventing the corrosion of metal in storage. Here, the operation of the different systems is discussed in greater detail. Also considered is the approach made by the designer of airconditioning systems after basic requirements have been specified.

Details

Anti-Corrosion Methods and Materials, vol. 6 no. 12
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0003-5599

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 1 November 2005

W.L. Tse, Albert T.P. So, W.L. Chan and Ida K.Y. Mak

To examine the role of predicted mean vote (PMV) in airconditioned environments by conducting a thermal comfort study.

Abstract

Purpose

To examine the role of predicted mean vote (PMV) in airconditioned environments by conducting a thermal comfort study.

Design/methodology/approach

A formal statistical approach was adopted for the credibility of the study. Thermal measurements and questionnaire filling were carried out in commercial offices to collect the required data. Statistical analysis on the collected data and logical reasoning were then employed to derive the conclusions.

Findings

Provide an evidence to support PMV to be an appropriate thermal comfort index in airconditioned environments. Guarantee high productivity of occupants by using PMV in airconditioning control.

Research limitations/implications

Future research work should be carried out to investigate any significant relationship between improvement in PMV and the profits gained by occupants inside an airconditioned space. With such relationship, it is possible to develop an intelligent airconditioning control to yield the most cost‐effective thermal environments for commercial offices.

Practical implications

Airconditioning engineers are highly recommended to employ PMV to assess the thermal comfort environment in airconditioned offices.

Originality/value

This paper highlights the importance aspect on choosing a thermal comfort index for comfort assessment in airconditioned offices. The index itself should not consider adaptive actions. Otherwise, the productivity of occupants would be severely deteriorated. It is well known that PMV is the thermal comfort index that can fulfill this requirement.

Details

Facilities, vol. 23 no. 13/14
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0263-2772

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 1 June 1984

No one can work at peak efficiency if they are too hot or too cold. They may become lethargic or irritable: they may even absent themselves from work as a result. This all…

Abstract

No one can work at peak efficiency if they are too hot or too cold. They may become lethargic or irritable: they may even absent themselves from work as a result. This all adds up to less efficient work, greater liability to error, lower productivity, decline in staff morale and faster turn around of personnel. John Berry of Ove Arup and Partners discusses the role to be played by air conditioning in managing the office environment.

Details

Facilities, vol. 2 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0263-2772

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 13 November 2009

Nuno Serra and Viriato Semiao

The purpose of this paper is to compare two different ventilation strategies, displacement and mixing, in heat, ventilating and air conditioning (HVAC) systems with…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to compare two different ventilation strategies, displacement and mixing, in heat, ventilating and air conditioning (HVAC) systems with recourse to computational fluid dynamics (CFD).

Design/methodology/approach

The flow and the heat and mass transfer are numerically predicted inside an airconditioned room with a desk and an occupant for the cooling and heating periods in moderate climate regions, like Mediterranean countries. Focus is placed on energy efficiency, thermal comfort and internal air quality (IAQ), evaluated from the simulations of the three‐dimensional, turbulent, non‐isothermal and buoyant flow of moist air.

Findings

For the cooling period, displacement exhibits higher energy and ventilation efficiencies promoting simultaneously better comfort for the occupant. For the heating period, mixing performs better due to the short‐circuit phenomenon occurring with the displacement flow. Overall, mixing behaves better for airconditioning of typical office rooms in Mediterranean‐climate countries, where heating and cooling climatization modes have to be alternated according to the season.

Research limitations/implications

Room, desk and occupant are designed as parallelepipeds. No experimental work is performed but models used are previously validated by other authors against experimental data.

Practical implications

The results indicate a short‐circuit flow phenomenon that must be avoided when designing HVAC systems.

Originality/value

Use of grilles layout typical for the cooling period to study the airconditioning of a typical office room during the heating period, incorporating in the model a transport equation for the moisture. IAQ is simulated together with the flow, the heat and the comfort conditions: velocities, temperature, predicted mean vote (PMV), predicted percentage of dissatisfied (PPD), draught rating (DR), PPD due to air quality (PDQ) and air moisture content are calculated simultaneously.

Details

Engineering Computations, vol. 26 no. 8
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0264-4401

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 1 September 1989

W.A. Southwood

Superconductivity has been around for most of this century. In 1911 Kamerlingh Onnes, a Dutch physicist, discovered that the resistance of mercury to electric current…

Abstract

Superconductivity has been around for most of this century. In 1911 Kamerlingh Onnes, a Dutch physicist, discovered that the resistance of mercury to electric current dropped effectively to zero at 4° Kelvin. This extremely low temperature — 452°F below zero — was able to be achieved by his production, three years earlier, of liquid helium.

Details

Facilities, vol. 7 no. 9
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0263-2772

1 – 10 of over 41000