One of the arguments used against British entry to the EEC was the loss of sovereignty; that Parliament would not be able to fully control all the statutory measures which would be applied to the people. EEC regulations apply without implementation by national governments, but since member‐states, through their representatives on Council and Commission, have participated, it is considered that national governments have in effect enacted them. EEC Directives as the name implies requires national governments to apply the provisions of the EEC measure; transitional exemptions up to five years are usually included for individual provisions, where internal adjustment is required. MAFF food regulations, implementing EEC Directives, have been made after this pattern for a number of food additives. The statutory measures are unlikely to present any greater difficulties than usual, but in interpretation, courts in this country have to consider EEC law above that of English and Scottish courts. The Court at Luxemburg exists mainly for interpretation, but courts and litigants have been advised against reference owing to the lengthy delays and the high court or court of sessions should make is interpretation based on EEC law.
A nostrum much quoted in traditional contract law courses is ‘caveat emptor’ (let the buyer beware). Buyers had to look after themselves and protect their own interests. The laissez‐faire philosophy which lay behind this maxim took the view that the operation of unrestrained market forces was the best method for protecting consumers as a whole. Emphasis was placed on free competition providing alternative choices as the best way of satisfying consumer wants. In reality, even in the mid‐19th century when this philosophy was dominant, the consumer was not left without the protection of the law. Freedom of contract notionally existed and much judicial rhetoric was expended on justifying it but in reality the courts were quite astute in protecting consumers in situations where they were the victims of fraud, trading malpractice or unequal contracts.
This article provides an introduction and assessment of the English and Spanish literatures on gender relations in disaster contexts. We analyze regional patterns of…
This article provides an introduction and assessment of the English and Spanish literatures on gender relations in disaster contexts. We analyze regional patterns of differences and similarities in women’s disaster experiences and the differing research questions raised by these patterns in the scholarly and practice‐based literature. The analysis supports the claim that how gender is theorized makes a difference in public policy and practical approaches to disaster risk management. We propose new directions in the field of disaster social science and contribute a current bibliography in the emerging gender and disaster field.
The purpose of this paper is to examine the persistent challenges in implementing care management within the context of integration. In addition the appropriateness of the…
The purpose of this paper is to examine the persistent challenges in implementing care management within the context of integration. In addition the appropriateness of the care management model will be considered within the current, personalization focused, health and social care policy landscape. The paper draws upon a recent evaluation of a care management and assessment pilot project within a health and social care partnership in Scotland.
A multi‐method approach was adopted, including interviews, vignettes and focus groups, in order to capture data around expectations in relation to the pilot as well as exploring processes and outcomes for those involved.
This paper argues that whilst progress has been made with regard to care management, specific and persistent challenges remain. Professional and organizational boundaries, communication and information sharing remain key challenges. Policy imperatives have shifted the emphasis in community care services towards self‐care, co‐production and personalization contributing to a lack of clarity over the place of care management within the broader integration agenda.
This research was undertaken in one partnership locality in Scotland and as such the findings are related to that particular area. However, the key messages arising from this paper resonate with the broader academic literature on care management and as such are likely to be of interest to a broader audience.
This paper brings together integrated working, care management and the developing policy framework of self‐care to consider the challenges for care management in this context.
The purpose of this paper is to provide an update to a review of the joint working literature in the field of health and social care for adults, with particular emphasis…
The purpose of this paper is to provide an update to a review of the joint working literature in the field of health and social care for adults, with particular emphasis given to the experiences of users and carers.
The aims of the literature review remained largely the same as those of the original, they were to identify: models of joint working, evidence of effectiveness and cost-effectiveness and the factors promoting or hindering the models. However, to reflect the growing interest in the experiences of users and carers a fourth aim was added to map these experiences. Given their prominence in terms of policy debates about integration, the review focused on jointly organised services for older people and people with mental health problems in the UK only.
The review demonstrates tentative signs that some initiatives designed to join-up or integrate services can deliver outcomes desired by government. Importantly some studies that report the experiences of users of services and carers suggest that they perceive benefits from efforts to join-up or integrate services. However it is our contention that the evidence is less than compelling and does not justify the faith invested in the strategy by current or previous governments.
The study updates our knowledge of the impact of joint working in the field of health and social care for adults. Importantly the paper highlights what is known about the experiences of users and carers of joint/integrated services.
Providing housing with care may seem to be integration at its best. This paper investigates the workforce implications of this form of provision with a focus on older…
Providing housing with care may seem to be integration at its best. This paper investigates the workforce implications of this form of provision with a focus on older people with high support needs.