The decision to engage in entrepreneurial activities is grounded in personal characteristics (motivation) and external environmental factors. One of the main external…
The decision to engage in entrepreneurial activities is grounded in personal characteristics (motivation) and external environmental factors. One of the main external factors might be the structure of the regional economic activity. Does a high share of the public sector affect positively regional entrepreneurship or vice versa? Does the diversity in regional economic activity is conducive for entrepreneurial development or the regional comparative advantage as expressed by spatial economies of scale offering more entrepreneurial opportunities? Even though economic analysis has extensively examined the impact of the public sector size on the overall national economic activity (the crowding out effect), this impact has not been into scrutiny at regional level on microeconomic issues, such as the decision to engage in entrepreneurial activities. The authors further investigate the relation between diversity and entrepreneurship at regional level. The paper aims to discuss these issues.
This paper uses data for 264 NUTS II EU regions. The time span of the data set is 1999-2008. The paper applies panel data analysis to explain the cross-time cross-section variation of the dependent variable: the self-employment share in total employment at regional level. In order to measure the existence of crowding out from public sector to regional entrepreneurship, the authors use the share of regional public sector gross value added over total regional gross value added. The diversity of the regional economic activity is measured by the Herfindahl-Hirschman Concentration Index across sectors.
The findings of the paper show that there is a negative correlation between public sector share and regional entrepreneurship. Hence, as at national level, the increase in the role of the public sector in the regional economic system crowds out regional entrepreneurship. The second finding indicates that the impact of the diversity of the regional economic activity on regional entrepreneurship is inconclusive.
The originality of this paper is due to the fact that the role of the public sector on regional economic phenomena, such as entrepreneurship, is examined for the first time. Also, the investigation of the relationship between diversity (vs localization economies) and entrepreneurship is performed using data for the full sample of regions of the European Union. The findings of the paper have significant policy implications since they provide useful inputs for the design of the regional development policy. The reduction of the public sector at regional level may contribute in entrepreneurial development and finally in regional economic growth and prosperity. Besides, the regional industrial policy should focus on the exploitation of the spatially constraint economies of scope in the framework of the Triple Helix model.
The purpose of this paper is to address entrepreneurial programs offered by Greek higher education institutions (HEIs) to 1639 students in different scientific disciplines…
The purpose of this paper is to address entrepreneurial programs offered by Greek higher education institutions (HEIs) to 1639 students in different scientific disciplines at Aristotle University of Thessaloniki (AUTh) and Technical Educational Institution of Thessaloniki (TEITh). The programs were analyzed and it was revealed that there were differences in participation rates, attitudes towards entrepreneurship education and perceptions about required skills between the two genders.
During the developmental phase of the particular entrepreneurship program, an evaluation stage had been predicted, whereby student participants (344 females and 370 males AUTh students and 410 females and 515 males TEITh students) would anonymously fill out questionnaires upon completion of the program, regarding male as opposed to female attitudes and perceptions.
There are higher enrollment rates of males than females. Regarding attitudes towards participation in entrepreneurial educational programs, females demonstrate a stronger interest in acquiring knowledge, developing skills, facing career competition and networking with local business, to a significantly higher degree than their male counterparts. In addition, females rank all skills as of higher significance in successful entrepreneurial activity, assigning lower value only to communication skills, compared to men. The opposite holds for males, who ranked communication skills as of greatest importance among all other skills.
This paper provides insight into gender differences regarding male and female involvement in entrepreneurial education and as to their “pre‐entrepreneurial” profile and characteristics. It therefore sharpens understanding as to the way in which entrepreneurship education can encourage female participation within the entrepreneurial arena in future.
Factors that male and female students consider to be most important in issues of entrepreneurship education are identified, providing a framework for the effective design, quality and delivery of such programs.
The present paper constitutes one of the first to examine factors accounting for male and female student participation in entrepreneurship education programs offered by HEIs in the Greek context. The value derived aids the development of curricula tailored to gender distinctive needs and demands.