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This study aims to investigate the effects of indium composition on surface morphology and optical properties of indium gallium nitride on gallium nitride (InGaN/GaN…
This study aims to investigate the effects of indium composition on surface morphology and optical properties of indium gallium nitride on gallium nitride (InGaN/GaN) heterostructures.
The InGaN/GaN heterostructures were grown on flat sapphire substrates using a metal-organic chemical vapour deposition reactor with a trimethylindium flow rate of 368 sccm. The indium composition of the InGaN epilayers was controlled by applying different substrate temperatures. The surface morphology and topography were observed using field emission scanning electron microscope (F.E.I. Nova NanoSEM 450) and atomic force microscopy (Bruker Dimension Edge) with a scanning area of 10 µm × 10 µm, respectively. The compositional analysis was done by Energy Dispersive X-Ray Analysis. Finally, the ultraviolet-visible (UV-Vis) spectrophotometer (Agilent Technology Cary Series UV-Vis-near-infrared spectrometer) was measured from 200 nm to 1500 nm to investigate the optical properties of the samples.
The InGaN/GaN thin films have been successfully grown at three different substrate temperatures. The indium composition reduced as the temperature increased. At 760 C, the highest indium composition was obtained, 21.17%. This result was acquired from the simulation fitting of ω−2θ scan on (0002) plane using LEPTOS software by Bruker D8 Discover. The InGaN/GaN shows significantly different surface morphologies and topographies as the indium composition increases. The thickness of InGaN epilayers of the structure was ∼300 nm estimated from the field emission scanning electron microscopy. The energy bandgap of the InGaN was 2.54 eV – 2.79 eV measured by UV-Vis measurements.
It can be seen from this work that changes in substrate temperature can affect the indium composition. From all the results obtained, this work can be helpful towards efficiency improvement in solar cell applications.
Millennial-generation employees need to stimulate their creativity to produce innovative ideas, services and products for organizations to flourish and succeed. The main…
Millennial-generation employees need to stimulate their creativity to produce innovative ideas, services and products for organizations to flourish and succeed. The main purpose of this research was to discover the mechanism through which organization identification influences employees' creativity in the Chinese organizational context. Particularly, we proposed the mediating role of work engagement and the moderating role of work values in the relationship.
A questionnaire survey was utilized to collect the data from 281 employees working in China. Hierarchical regression was utilized to analyze the data.
The findings reveal that organizational identification significantly influences the creativity of millennial employees; work engagement plays a positive mediating role between organizational identification and employee creativity. Moreover, work values of millennial generation employees, specifically utilitarian orientation, intrinsic preferences, interpersonal harmony and innovation orientation have a positive moderating effect between work engagement and employee creativity.
This study recognizes and analyzes the mechanism underlying the influence of organizational identification and recommends that work engagement is a crucial mediator of the complicated relationship between organizational identification and employee creativity. Consequently, this study is the key effort for millennial employees’ work values and engagement to explore employee creativity in Chinese cultural context and also suggests important theoretical and practical implications.