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The effect of foreign aid on economic activity of a country can be dampened due to potentially adverse effects on exports through a real exchange rate appreciation. In…
The effect of foreign aid on economic activity of a country can be dampened due to potentially adverse effects on exports through a real exchange rate appreciation. In this study we examine the long-term relationship between export performance and foreign aid in developing countries while accounting for other factors. The estimates of direct effect of foreign aid on exports are imprecise. However, the effect of the quadratic term of foreign aid on exports is negative and precise. This implies large amount of foreign aid does adversely affect export performance. The results are robust to the use of two different export performance measures and different sub-samples.
This paper estimates the responsiveness of aid to recipient countries' economic and physical needs, civil/political rights, and government effectiveness. We look…
This paper estimates the responsiveness of aid to recipient countries' economic and physical needs, civil/political rights, and government effectiveness. We look exclusively at the post-Cold War era and use fixed effects to control for the political, strategic, and other considerations of donors. We find that aid and per capita income have been negatively related, while aid has been positively related to infant mortality, rights, and government effectiveness.
This study aims to examine how aid for trade policy and regulations (AfTPR) contribute to achieving Sustainable Development Goal (SDG) target 8.1 (sustain per capita…
This study aims to examine how aid for trade policy and regulations (AfTPR) contribute to achieving Sustainable Development Goal (SDG) target 8.1 (sustain per capita economic growth) and whether the effectiveness of AfTPR is conditional to the stable political environment.
This paper uses a widely accepted endogenous growth framework and applies panel data fixed effects and two-step difference and system generalized method of moments estimation strategies on panel data of 50 developing countries over 2005–2017.
The findings of the study confirm that aid to trade policy promotes sustainable economic growth in developing countries, but this category of development assistance is only effective and significant for low and lower middle-income (LLMI) economies. The positive and significant effect of AfTPR in upper middle-income countries is conditional to their level of political stability. Under a stable political situation, the positive effect of AfTPR on sustainable growth remains almost same for the LLMI countries, whereas for the upper middle-income countries this growth effect reached almost double.
International trade is considered as a driver for inclusive and sustainable economic growth, whereas aid for trade is acknowledged for its prospective contribution toward achieving these goals. The findings have dominant policy implications for the international development organizations and donors, which recommend that it is more desirable to transmit aid toward developing and implementing trade policy and regulations as per capita economic growth improves in the aid recipient countries.
According to the authors’ knowledge, no prior study empirically analyzes the effect of AfTPRs on SDG target 8.1.
The purpose of this paper is to provide an analytical model to decide between cash-based and in-kind distributions during emergency responses considering the needs of…
The purpose of this paper is to provide an analytical model to decide between cash-based and in-kind distributions during emergency responses considering the needs of beneficiaries and market conditions. To allow the switch between modalities, a preparedness framework for humanitarian organizations (HOs) is provided.
A mathematical model is proposed to help humanitarian responders make quantitative decisions on the type of programs to implement in emergency responses. The model was applied to a field response by an international HO during the COVID-19 emergency in Colombia.
Cash-based and in-kind distributions are not mutually exclusive response modalities during emergencies, and the real needs of beneficiaries and market effects should be included in the modality selection decision to improve program effectiveness.
The research is focused on short-term immediate response to emergencies; the proposed model assumes favorable market conditions and limits the aid options to direct in-kind and multipurpose cash assistance, excluding other types of cash transfers.
The research outlines practical preconditions to operationalize switching between programs during an emergency. The study provides evidence that HOs should consider dynamics decision tools to select aid modalities and evaluate their response depending on market conditions.
Considering aid modality as a dynamic decision and including the needs from beneficiaries in the choice can have profound impact in the dignifying of humanitarian response to emergencies.
The quantitative model to decide between aid modalities is a novel approach to include beneficiaries' needs and market dynamics into humanitarian supply chain research. The preparedness framework closes the gap between the emergency preparedness literature and the operational constraints that organizations face for fast program implementation.
Although the Public Health Service has identified AIDS (Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome) as the number one priority among public health concerns in the United States…
Although the Public Health Service has identified AIDS (Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome) as the number one priority among public health concerns in the United States, and the Surgeon General has issued an official report calling for AIDS education initiatives to be instituted in a variety of settings throughout this country, many libraries have been slow to develop proactive means of supplying educational material on AIDS. As part of an overall AIDS education initiative, libraries stand to play a significant role through the production and/or distribution of information on AIDS, through the development of collections capable of satisfying the informational and educational needs of patrons and through the provision of reference and referral services that provide effective information delivery as it pertains to inquiries regarding the subject of AIDS.
The results of a survey carried out at eight of the 14 public libraries in Swaziland regarding the availability of HIV/AIDS information resources indicate that: limited…
The results of a survey carried out at eight of the 14 public libraries in Swaziland regarding the availability of HIV/AIDS information resources indicate that: limited and non‐current information on various subjects appealing to a select cross‐section of library users is available; the information resources are lacking in appropriateness; titles are duplicated, limiting resource‐sharing between regions; access is restricted and usage levels are low. It is recommended that libraries in Swaziland should contribute to the effectiveness of the campaign against HIV/AIDS by: collaborating with existing partnerships to influence the production, distribution and access to appropriate materials; embarking on high profile HIV/AIDS information exhibitions at public fora; extending information access to remote communities; and exploiting e‐mail facilities to facilitate timely access to, and solicit innovative ideas on, selective dissemination of HIV/AIDS information.
Despite the overall impact the AIDS epidemic has had on US business and society, few articles have been published in academic journals on hospitality management. Presents…
Despite the overall impact the AIDS epidemic has had on US business and society, few articles have been published in academic journals on hospitality management. Presents a brief review of the literature and summarizes the current state of the US hospitality industry and its response to the AIDS challenge. Suggests that a combination of ongoing employee education programmes, in conjunction with a comprehensive policy statement, may be the most effective means of preparing an organization to deal with employees with AIDS. Makes recommendations for the implementation of these programmes appropriate to the hospitality environment.
The purpose of this paper is to compare and contrast two types of shopping aids, that is, research‐supporting and solution‐oriented shopping aids, and examine their…
The purpose of this paper is to compare and contrast two types of shopping aids, that is, research‐supporting and solution‐oriented shopping aids, and examine their effectiveness, considering both consumer and situational factors.
Expanded selection and additional detailed information are chosen to illustrate research‐supporting shopping aids, and personalized product recommendations and product ratings are used as examples of solution‐oriented shopping aids. This conceptual paper proposes that usage of shopping aids has an effect on the purchase likelihood and decision satisfaction and focuses on studying the moderating role of consumer product knowledge and time pressure. The thesis is that congruence between the type of a shopping aid and consumer characteristics, such as product knowledge, or situational characteristics, such as time pressure, should enhance the effectiveness of shopping aids.
The research propositions in this paper delineate how the use of retail shopping aids should affect the consumer's purchase likelihood, decision satisfaction, decision confidence, and evaluation costs, under the moderating influence of product knowledge and time pressure. Overall, knowledgeable consumers and less time‐pressed consumers should benefit from research‐supporting shopping aids (i.e. expanded selection and additional product information), whereas novice consumers and time‐pressed consumers should benefit from solution‐oriented shopping aids (i.e. personalized product recommendation and product ratings).
Retail shopping aids are designed to offer sales assistance for consumers to handle the obstacles to purchase completion. However, past efforts to install retail shopping aids have seen mixed results. This conceptual paper advocates that consideration of consumer characteristics and situational factors is necessary to understand the effects of shopping aid usage. This paper thus contributes to the understanding of solutions to purchase decision deferral and the determinants of decision satisfaction, and has practical implications for retailers regarding providing retail shopping aids to facilitate purchase completion and shopping experiences.
There were 89,708 prisoners in Indonesia in April 2006. The majority were charged for narcotics related crimes. Prisons are working at over‐capacity and with miniscule…
There were 89,708 prisoners in Indonesia in April 2006. The majority were charged for narcotics related crimes. Prisons are working at over‐capacity and with miniscule healthcare budgets. There has been an increase of deaths due to AIDS, particularly among people who inject drugs. Official data shows that HIV prevalence averages 22% in prisons. In late 2002, the Ministry of Justice (MOJ) decided to promote HIV/AIDS prevention and care activities for prisoners to prevent the spread of HIV within prisons, and from there to the community as a whole. In 2005, MOJ launched the Indonesian National Strategy for HIV/AIDS Prevention, Care and Support for Prisoners. The Indonesian HIV/AIDS Prevention and Care Project has been actively involved in the design of these programs and supported their implementation in several prisons, together with other organizations. The Indonesian National Strategy is the first of its kind in Asia, and one of only a few dedicated national strategies for HIV/AIDS prevention and care for prisoners. It has enabled education, as well as the provision of condoms, bleach, methadone and antiretroviral therapy for prisoners. This paper describes the National Strategy for HIV/AIDS Prevention, Care and Support for Prisoners, which will help control the HIVepidemic among people who inject drugs and ultimately be beneficial for the community as a whole.