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Article
Publication date: 4 August 2020

Akm Ahsan Ullah and Faraha Nawaz

There is abundant research on surrogacy; however, migration scholars have not addressed surrogacy-driven migration. Policies related to surrogacy and surrogacy-led…

Abstract

Purpose

There is abundant research on surrogacy; however, migration scholars have not addressed surrogacy-driven migration. Policies related to surrogacy and surrogacy-led migration are under-researched. The paper argues that surrogacy-led migration or fertility/reproductive migration constitutes a significant part of mainstream migration. The purpose of this paper is to reflect on the policy dilemmas in various countries.

Design/methodology/approach

A total of 9 surrogate mothers (4 from India; 2 from Thailand, 2 from Indonesia and 1 from Nepal) and 8 commissioning parents (2 from Japan; 4 from Europe; 1 from the USA; 1 from Australia) and 2 doctors (1 from India and 1 from Thailand) selected on snowball basis were interviewed between 2014 and 2016 by using a checklist.

Findings

The deficiency and inconsistency of laws regarding surrogacy facilitated the growth of the surrogacy market. Therefore, a uniform policy would help to define and improve the surrogacy and surrogacy-led migration management.

Originality/value

This paper demonstrates the interplay of surrogacy and mainstream migration. This is a fresh addition to the study of migration.

Details

Public Administration and Policy, vol. 23 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1727-2645

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Article
Publication date: 14 May 2018

AKM Ahsan Ullah

Migration of skilled workers to other countries remains a highly contentious issue. Skill drain does not take place based on skill surplus and deficient equation. Skilled…

Abstract

Purpose

Migration of skilled workers to other countries remains a highly contentious issue. Skill drain does not take place based on skill surplus and deficient equation. Skilled migrants can make their choice to migrate on their own with minimal control of the Government. This paper aims to argue that sending countries lose skill which cannot be offset or justified by the remittances inflow.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper is based on a research conducted on skill migration from the Philippines, Singapore and Thailand. In this study, skilled migrants are engineers, medical doctors, nurses and academics. The author interviewed 12 engineers (four from the Philippines; two from Malaysia; four from Singapore and two from Thailand); nine medical doctors (four from the Philippines; three from Singapore, one from Malaysia and one from Thailand); eight nurses (six from the Philippines and two from Thailand); and 14 academics (six from the Philippines; five from Singapore and three from Malaysia) who were working abroad.

Findings

Skill migration continues to grow because of the growing demand, wage differentials, glorifications of the contribution of remittances to development and failure of the origin countries to retain them. The question remains whether the respective sending country is producing more of them so that they can send after their own demand is met. This paper investigates whether the sending end can afford exporting such skills.

Originality/value

This is an important contribution to the scholarship.

Details

International Journal of Development Issues, vol. 17 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1446-8956

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Article
Publication date: 3 May 2016

Memoona Iqbal and Ahsan Ullah

The purpose of this study is to particularly define the usability regarding interface of digital library Web site. It discusses the multi-dimensional constructs of…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to particularly define the usability regarding interface of digital library Web site. It discusses the multi-dimensional constructs of usability and methods applied in the evaluation of the usability of digital library Web site interface. The Usability of HEC National Digital Library Web site interface is measured in terms of effectiveness, efficiency and satisfaction.

Design/methodology/approach

For this purpose, a qualitative approach, that is, focus group technique, is used. This study includes eight members in the focus group. These members were MA students from the Department of Information Management, University of the Punjab Lahore.

Findings

Usability evaluation was made by using effectiveness, efficiency, learnability and satisfaction constructs. It also discovers the opinion of focus group members on the “ease of use”, “organization of information”, “terminology and labeling”, “visual attractiveness” and “mistake recovery”. “Click cost” is particularly examined.

Originality/value

No usability study has been conducted in Pakistan about the National Digital Library of HEC. This library is a very important source of electronic content for academic community. This study will explore the usability evaluation, problems faced by users and solutions to solve these problems.

Details

Library Hi Tech News, vol. 33 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0741-9058

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 3 April 2017

Hafiz Habib-ur-Rehman, Haroon Idrees and Ahsan Ullah

Deeni Madaris of Pakistan and their libraries are playing an important role in educating the large fraction of society. They have always been engaged in the development of…

Abstract

Purpose

Deeni Madaris of Pakistan and their libraries are playing an important role in educating the large fraction of society. They have always been engaged in the development of social and cultural values of the Pakistani society. This study aims to investigate the organization of information resources and their utilization at Deeni Madaris libraries in the central Punjab, Pakistan.

Design/methodology/approach

Quantitative research approach was adopted for this study. A questionnaire was developed on the bases of related literature and discussions with experts of librarianship as well as Islamic studies in Pakistan. The questionnaire was sent to 49 Deeni Madaris, of which five did not have libraries and four did not respond. Forty (81.6 per cent) Deeni Madaris responded and provided the relevant data about their libraries. The collected data were analyzed through SPSS 22. Mostly descriptive statistics were applied to calculate the frequencies, percentage, means and standard deviations. A two-tailed t-test was applied to check the impact of cataloguing and automation on the use of information resources.

Findings

It was found that majority of the respondents developed their own classification and cataloguing methods for the organization of information resources and did not have a proper retrieval system. Majority of the respondents were providing lending services to readers. Teachers and final-year students were the key users of the libraries. They mostly referred to books, theses and serials written in Urdu and Arabic language. The situation of library computerization was very weak; only 19 libraries had computers and 11 of them have partially automated the library activities. Library automation and catalogue put positive effects on the use of library resources.

Originality/value

The exploration of the literature showed that libraries of Madaris in Pakistan have always been a priority, but these libraries did not get a position in the library literature as they deserve. This study will fill this gap.

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Article
Publication date: 14 November 2016

Ahsan Ullah

Differentiation is an important dimension of organizational structure, as it is the building block of organizational structure upon which organizations are based. The…

Abstract

Purpose

Differentiation is an important dimension of organizational structure, as it is the building block of organizational structure upon which organizations are based. The purpose of this paper is to investigate the nature of differentiation in central libraries of leading universities in Pakistan.

Design/methodology/approach

Multiple quantitative methods were used to carry out this research. Structured questionnaire, perusal of organizational documents and observation of library section were used to collect data for this study.

Findings

Majority of libraries have divided the entire library operations into five to eight departments, and acquisition, circulation and periodical sections are created in almost all the libraries included in the sample. Unity of command principle is applied at only the section level, but dual chain of command is prevalent for personnel working under the two hierarchical levels, i.e. section head and library head, as they have to report to both of them. In majority of libraries, average span of control ranges from five to ten personnel for the library head and from six to seven personnel for the section head.

Originality/value

No such study is conducted in Pakistan. This study has identified the levels of differentiation and will guide academic library executives in creating a balance in the levels of differentiation to accomplish the objectives of the organization.

Details

Library Management, vol. 37 no. 8/9
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0143-5124

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 14 November 2016

Muhammad Umar Farooq, Ahsan Ullah, Memoona Iqbal and Abid Hussain

The purpose of this paper is twofold: to find out the perception of university librarians about the current and required competencies and to identify the current rank and…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is twofold: to find out the perception of university librarians about the current and required competencies and to identify the current rank and to point out the benchmark for competencies of library professionals at public universities in Pakistan.

Design/methodology/approach

Quantitative research design is used for the conduct of the current study. A structured questionnaire was used to collect data. The Special Libraries Association instrument “Competencies for Information Professionals of the 21st Century” was used to design the questionnaire. A paired sample t-test is used to establish whether there is any noteworthy distinction between the current and required levels of skills. Inferential statistic was also used and independent sample t-test and ANOVA was used to identify the difference in perception on the basis of different demographic variables.

Findings

There is a significant gap between the perceptions of university librarians about their present skills and required skills. The present level of skills is lower than the desired level of competence. There is no significant relationship between the length of job (i.e. experience), grade and skills of academic librarians. But in the case of gender, male have a higher score on the current level of competencies while female have a higher score on the required level of skills.

Originality/value

The findings of this study are helpful for universities in the recruitment, management and training of their librarians on the basis of required skills. Furthermore, it will be useful for librarians in their career planning and continuing education and library schools to revise their curriculum in accordance with needs.

Details

Library Management, vol. 37 no. 8/9
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0143-5124

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 15 May 2017

Saeed Ahmad, Mudasir Mustafa, Ahsan Ullah, Muhammad Shoaib, Muhammad Mushtaq and Wasif Ali

This study aims to examine the associations between socioeconomic status, types of rigging (pre- polling-day and post-), politics and voting behavior, vote casting and…

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to examine the associations between socioeconomic status, types of rigging (pre- polling-day and post-), politics and voting behavior, vote casting and perceptions of rigging in Pakistan’s most recent elections, and attitudes toward electoral integrity.

Design/methodology/approach

Data were collected from students at three different universities. In all, 748 units of analysis (488 male and 260 female) recorded their responses by means of a self-structured questionnaire. Linear regression was applied to measure the associations between variables, and the reliability and validity of the scales were tested.

Findings

A significant relationship was found between pre-poll rigging, post-poll rigging, politics and voting behavior, socioeconomic characteristics (i.e. age, education, father’s education, background or place of residence and monthly household incomes), the perception of rigging in the last elections and attitudes toward electoral integrity.

Practical implications

Pakistan’s history has been blemished by electoral malpractices during both de facto and de jure regimes. Attention has formerly been paid to either polling-day or post-election rigging. The relationship of electoral integrity with different factors explored in this study have usually been ignored or overlooked. The findings of this study would help policy-makers, youth experts and academicians to reorient their behaviors to strengthen political stability, the rule of law and the continuation of democracy via their participation in the system.

Originality/value

To the researchers’ best knowledge, there has not been a single peer-reviewed study of Pakistan which has explored the associations between the variables examined for this study. The main academic challenge the researchers faced was to find a standardized and contextualized scale or tool to explore how different types of vote-rigging affected attitudes toward electoral integrity. Thus, the structured scales for types of rigging and electoral integrity developed here would be useful for future studies in the field of electoral integrity in democratic countries.

Details

Transforming Government: People, Process and Policy, vol. 11 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1750-6166

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 2 May 2019

A.K.M. Ahsan Ullah, Siti Mazidah Mohamad, Noor Hasharina Hassan and Diotima Chattoraj

The purpose of this paper is twofold: first, it intends to engage in skill gain–lose debate in the contemporary global skill mobility context; and second, it looks into…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is twofold: first, it intends to engage in skill gain–lose debate in the contemporary global skill mobility context; and second, it looks into whether Southeast Asia (SEA) is losing by experiencing skill deficiency due to over outflow of talents.

Design/methodology/approach

Primary data were collected through interviews with policy makers, stakeholder and migrant professionals from Singapore, Malaysia, Thailand, Indonesia and the Philippines.

Findings

The paper comes up with the brain drain dynamics to better understand the trajectory of skill mobility in and from SEA. Within the skill mobility discourse, it is undoubtedly difficult to conclude who are the losers and the gainers in the long run.

Originality/value

This research is based on relatively small sample. However, this offers a fresh insight into the skill deficiency dynamics in Southeast Asia.

Details

Asian Education and Development Studies, vol. 8 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2046-3162

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 6 July 2015

Ahsan Ullah

The purpose of this study is to investigate the nature of collaboration among seminar libraries and central library of universities and to recommend certain measures to…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to investigate the nature of collaboration among seminar libraries and central library of universities and to recommend certain measures to strengthen this collaboration. Central libraries of leading universities in Pakistan possess more resources and manpower than seminar libraries. The task of planning about the important matters like access to e-resources, selecting infrastructure and automation mechanics lies with central libraries. Growth of information and communication technology (ICT) and information explosion has created opportunities for the libraries within a university for creating a cordial and beneficial relationship between central library and seminar libraries.

Design/methodology/approach

Mixed-method design was used for exploring the collaboration and nature of relationship among central libraries and seminar libraries within the university. Data were collected from library executives chairing their sections at their workplaces in central libraries of leading universities during the author’s visits to these libraries for MPhil study for collecting data about organisational structures of central libraries. A questionnaire was constructed to elicit information about the relationship between the central library and the seminar libraries that was supplemented with the telephonic interviews from library professionals and faculty about the nature of this relationship.

Findings

The data analysis of the present study revealed that the relationship between the central library and the seminar libraries is of a diverse nature. Private sector universities have developed integrative relationships, while some public sector ones have interactive relations and some have independent libraries with limited relationship. All library professionals interviewed have rejected the idea of independent seminar libraries and majority of them proposed integrated relationship between the central library and the seminar libraries.

Practical implications

This study suggests that the relationship between the central library and the departmental library should be developed by considering the depleting resources and by developing ICT. According to library professionals, the relationship between the central and departmental libraries should be of either interactive or integrated nature. University administration and library administration should come forward for building a beneficial relationship among libraries within the university. This study will lead to broader collaborations among libraries of different universities in Pakistan.

Originality/value

No study has ever been undertaken in Pakistan to explore the relationship between the central library and the seminar libraries of universities. This study will be a milestone for building collaborative relationships among different libraries within universities.

Details

Library Review, vol. 64 no. 4/5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0024-2535

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 20 March 2007

A.K.M. Ahsan Ullah and Jayant K. Routray

This paper seeks to analyse the current poverty situation and poverty alleviation efforts of the NGOs in Bangladesh with emphasis on the impacts of two NGO programmes in…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper seeks to analyse the current poverty situation and poverty alleviation efforts of the NGOs in Bangladesh with emphasis on the impacts of two NGO programmes in two villages of Barisal district.

Design/methodology/approach

This research has employed both qualitative and quantitative approaches. The research has primarily used first‐hand empirical data. In order to substantiate primary data, relevant secondary information has also been used. Data were collected through household survey by applying both open‐ and closed‐ended questionnaires. With a view to analysing data, inferential as well as descriptive statistics have been applied.

Findings

The findings revealed that the economic condition of the poor in the study areas has not improved much when judged against some selected indicators, namely, income, food and non‐food expenditure, productive and non‐productive asset, food security, and employment creation. The Foster Greer Thorbecke index shows that the majority of the NGO beneficiaries remained below the poverty line in terms of income and the overwhelming majority of them remained below the underemployment line (less than 260 days of work in a year). The regression analysis shows that the income of the households is determined by landholding size, family labour, days suffered from morbidities and employment opportunity. The qualitative data on the perception of beneficiaries on the causes of poverty endorse this finding.

Originality/value

Controversies over the issue of widespread poverty in Bangladesh have been revolving among the government, NGOs and the donor agencies as well. NGOs have been claiming the entire success of the economic wellbeing made to the rural poor. However, this study has directly challenged their claims by casting an empirical lens on the impact of their interventions. This study has detected the paucities of the NGO interventions and gaps between their objectives and their achievement.

Details

International Journal of Social Economics, vol. 34 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0306-8293

Keywords

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