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Scientific research and delivering education at undergraduate and graduate levels are the main responsibilities of higher education institutions. Considering these points…
Scientific research and delivering education at undergraduate and graduate levels are the main responsibilities of higher education institutions. Considering these points, we aimed to provide insights into an array of topics pertaining to scientific research and tertiary education in Turkey and the future of Turkish higher education. We focused on research-based education, lifelong learning, research and higher education institutions, research grants and funding in Turkey, performance management in higher education, international collaborations, future of hands-on approaches, and lastly the issue of brain drain in Turkey. In the endeavor to present these issues in detail, we employed sector analysis method. Throughout the chapter, we aimed to provide detailed and comparative evaluations making use of both national and international literature.
Academic freedom is of central importance in all kinds of activities of academics and students. Considering this, many reforms were made to secure and improve academic…
Academic freedom is of central importance in all kinds of activities of academics and students. Considering this, many reforms were made to secure and improve academic freedom in Turkey. The most important reforms and changes were made in 1933, 1946, 1960, 1973 and 1981, and they all coincided with significant social and political periods. But, the history of Turkey’s academic freedom is not bright. The past university policies pertaining to academic freedom had occasionally positive, but often restrictive, results in expanding academic freedom. Despite policies and reforms, illegal dismissals of faculty members, disciplinary inspections and penalties were experienced. Moreover, the restrictions also affected freedom of expression in the forms of censorship and self-censorship; freedom to learn, teach and conduct researches had limitations. On the other hand, the removal of headscarf ban and the abolishment of coefficient policy which disadvantaged some students in the university entrance examinations can be given as examples of improvement in academic freedom of students, both of which improved students’ access to higher education. When compared with other Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development countries, the rankings and various indicators present Turkey at lower end in terms of academic freedom. This shows that further steps are to be taken to improve academic freedom in Turkey.
Academic freedom has been the topic of debate and discussion since the concept evolved in academia. It has been a controversial topic that has different dimensions and…
Academic freedom has been the topic of debate and discussion since the concept evolved in academia. It has been a controversial topic that has different dimensions and explores the significance of this concept with relation to knowledge development and enhancement of student’s progress. Academic freedom expects faculty members to submit their ideas and research results to rigorous peer review and to experts who excel in the subject matter. The current debate surrounding the topic lacks clarity and has taken a different shape in different countries. In some countries, it has assumed the role of individual freedom, in some the collegial and institutional freedom, and in others it respects the freedom of students. Apart from teaching–learning, it is the freedom to conduct research and explore new avenues of knowledge. In this book, the concept of academic freedom is examined in the lights of globalization and challenges it poses to the development of higher education. We have seen that in recent years the concept of academic freedom has been threatened and some academics expressing their right of academic freedom were fired from their academic position, and in some cases, were imprisoned. Such case studies where academic freedom was silenced have been highlighted in this book. Authors have tried to explore how the concept has been balanced with transparency and accountability and what role did racial and gender biases played in pairing with rights and responsibilities. Case studies from Turkey, Iraq, Pakistan and Hungary have been presented along with other interventions and programs meant to support and uphold academic freedom.
Research in higher education provides the foundation for the future of education and hence attracts the attention of policymakers who debate the merits and demerits of it…
Research in higher education provides the foundation for the future of education and hence attracts the attention of policymakers who debate the merits and demerits of it in various contexts. Research in higher education is expected to anticipate emerging trends, problems faced by educationists, and to develop concepts that would be reliable to generate the curriculum needed for knowledge-based nations. Universities that are conscious of the future and want to contribute to coping with this rapidly changing world have been engaged in meaningful research agendas. Education now has to deal with issues like globalization, climate change, refugee crisis, new models for education systems, steering the entire system toward internationalization, and manage the institution with a scarcity of resources. These challenges call for extensive research and in-depth analysis of the problems so that a possible solution can be worked out by academics in identifying thematic areas of work and emerging fields of education. Research-based universities occupy a prime position in the 21st-century global knowledge economy. These institutions have multiple roles to play besides teaching–learning and academic achievement of their students. This book demonstrates how research is being viewed in different countries having completely diverse socio-cultural backgrounds. The authors have explored the university’s contribution toward the advancement of global science and scholarship in countries like Turkey, Kosovo, Latin America, and the United States. Authors have also explored new information and processes that are contributing to emerging trends that are significant in understanding the human condition through multiple academic and societal roles. These authors discuss issues related to culture, technology, and society, which are the foundation of intellectual and scientific trends.
The purpose of this study is to obtain strong materials with multiwall carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) doped and investigate laser cut of MWCNTs also find the effect of the…
The purpose of this study is to obtain strong materials with multiwall carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) doped and investigate laser cut of MWCNTs also find the effect of the laser cutting parameters on composite materials.
The laminated composite plates were manufactured by using a vacuum infusion process. The mechanical properties of the composite materials produced were determined according to American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) D3039M, ASTM D3171, ASTM D 792 and ASTM D2583. A 130 Watts carbondioxide (CO2) laser cutting machine was used for drilling the two different composite plates with a thickness of 1.6–1.5 mm. Three variables were considered as process parameters including laser power (in three levels of 84.50, 104.00 and 127.40 W), cutting speed (in three levels of 4, 6, 8 mm/s) and 14 mm fixed focal position.
The fibers could not be cut due to insufficient melting in the experiments performed using 84.50 and 104.00 W laser power but the cutting was successfully completed when the laser power was 127.40 W. However, as the cutting speed increased, the contact time of the laser beam with the material decreased, so the kerf decreased, but the increased laser power created a thermal effect, causing an increase in hardness around the cutting surface. This increase was lower in MWCNTs doped composites compared to pure composites. It has been found that the addition of nanoparticles to layered glass fiber composite materials played an effective role in the strength of the material and affected the CO2 laser cutting quality.
This study is a unique study in which the CO2 laser cutting method of MWCNT-doped composite materials was investigated and the machinability without cutting errors, such as delamination, splitting, distortion and burring using the most suitable laser cutting parameters was revealed.
The terms cyprus, conflict, crisis and war have been almost inextricably intertwined throughout the history of this Mediterranean island. The education system played an…
The terms cyprus, conflict, crisis and war have been almost inextricably intertwined throughout the history of this Mediterranean island. The education system played an important role socially and school buildings played an important role visually first in the dissemination of nationalism when the ethno-nationalist movements within the turkish and greek-cypriot communities increased dramatically under British colonial rule (1878-1960), and later in the dissemination of internationalism in the mid-twentieth century. Despite the increased conflict and nationalism, which was reflected by neo-greek architectural elements, the striking impact of the international style turned school buildings into representations of the communities' attitudes towards modernism. By the mid-1940s these attitudes towards modernism also served as a latent way for communities' identity struggles and for the sovereignty of each community to exist. After world war ii the style embodied by many school buildings conveyed science-based modern thought; modernization attempts for political, economic and social reforms; and the strong commitment of the first modernist cypriot architects to the spirit of the time and the philosophy of the modern. Under this scope, postwar school buildings in cyprus are identified as unique artifacts transformed from an ‘ethnicity-based' image into an ‘environment-based' form that is more associated with the modernization, decolonization and nation-building processes from which local nuances of mainstream modernism emerged. At this point the modernization process of the state, identity struggles of the communities and architects' modernist attempts could be interpreted as providing a fertile ground for new social and architectural experiments, and could answer questions about how postwar school architecture managed to avoid reference to historical, ethnic and religious identities when there was an intentional exacerbation of hostility between the two ethnic communities and about school buildings predominantly followed principles of the international style even though both the greek and turkish-cypriot education systems were instrumental in strengthening local nationalisms and even ethnic tensions.