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Article
Publication date: 7 May 2019

Ahmed Yamen, Anas Al Qudah, Ahmed Badawi and Ahmed Bani-Mustafa

Despite the existence of laws, regulations and sanctions, financial crime remains widespread. The Panama leaks have proven that people from all over the world are…

Abstract

Purpose

Despite the existence of laws, regulations and sanctions, financial crime remains widespread. The Panama leaks have proven that people from all over the world are participating in money laundering and other financial crimes. This study aims to investigate the influence of national culture on financial crimes across 78 countries.

Design/methodology/approach

This study uses Hofstede’s cultural framework as a basis for its hypotheses on financial crime. It also uses the Basel anti-money laundering index as a proxy for measuring the incidence of financial crime across the countries under review.

Findings

The findings show that countries whose cultural profiles are characterized by low uncertainty avoidance, low individualism, high masculinity and low long-term orientation have high rates of financial crime. The finding also shows that countries whose cultural profiles are characterized by individualism or positive collectivism, uncertainty avoidance and long-term orientation have low rates of financial crime.

Originality/value

Laws, regulations and sanctions are not the only factors that can help deter the crime; governments should also take a holistic approach that includes the cultural factors that encourage deterrence.

Details

Journal of Money Laundering Control, vol. 22 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1368-5201

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 2 July 2019

Anas Al Qudah, Ahmed Bani-Mustafa and Ahmed Yamen

In this study, the authors aim to investigate the control of corruption (COC) mechanism and the rule of law (ROL) in mediating the effect of culture on terrorism…

Abstract

Purpose

In this study, the authors aim to investigate the control of corruption (COC) mechanism and the rule of law (ROL) in mediating the effect of culture on terrorism financing. Thus, whether the COC and the ROL can mediate the effect of culture on terrorism financing across 78 countries has been examined. This study can provide additional evidence about the importance of having good institutional quality to hinder any deviant behavior like terrorism financing.

Design/methodology/approach

Structural equation modeling is used to test the mechanism of the ROL and COC in mediating the effect of culture on terrorist financing (TF). This research tries to investigate the indirect path of culture in TF through COC and ROL and to examine the role of institutions in motivating or demotivating the deviant behaviors.

Findings

The results revealed that COC and ROL completely mediate the relation between culture and TF. This supports the postulation that there is an indirect relationship between culture and TF. Also, the results indicate that ROL is more powerful than COC, as a governmental tool, in controlling TF.

Originality/value

This paper highlights the fact that, according to authors’ research, this is the first study, to the best of their knowledge, that tests the mechanism of the ROL and COC in mediating the effect of culture on TF actions and money laundry.

Details

Journal of Money Laundering Control, vol. 22 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1368-5201

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Article
Publication date: 18 June 2020

Ahmed Emadeldin Yamen, Hounaida Mersni and Abdulhadi Ramadan

The purpose of this study is to examine the impact of public governance quality on tax evasion levels in old (pre-2004) and new (post-2004) European Union (EU) members…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to examine the impact of public governance quality on tax evasion levels in old (pre-2004) and new (post-2004) European Union (EU) members before and after the 2004 EU-enlargement.

Design/methodology/approach

This study uses panel data of 28 EU countries over the period 1996-2015. Tax evasion is measured using an updated version of the shadow economy size based on the light intensity, as calculated by (Medina and Schneider, 2018). The World Bank’s worldwide governance indicators are used as a measure of public governance.

Findings

The results indicate that new EU members have higher tax evasion levels compared to the old ones before and after the 2004 EU enlargement. The findings also report that the public governance quality is superior in old members throughout the 1996-2015 period. Furthermore, the authors found that after the EU enlargement, tax evasion levels decreased in both EU groups; however, the authors noticed an improvement in the public governance quality in new members and a deterioration in old ones. Additional analysis confirms the impact of public governance quality as an effective tool for reducing tax evasion behavior in both EU groups before and after the EU enlargement.

Practical implications

The findings are potentially useful for EU policymakers in identifying the most effective tools that can minimize tax evasion levels in EU countries. Additionally, the results are alarming as they show the negative consequences of the EU enlargement in old EU members. Thus, policymakers should consider them when setting their rules and regulations to reduce the significant differences between both EU groups to prevent member states from potentially exiting the EU.

Originality/value

To the best of the knowledge, this is the first study that examines the tax evasion behavior and public governance quality in the EU before and after the EU enlargement.

Details

Journal of Financial Crime, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1359-0790

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 20 January 2021

Ahmed Emadeldin Yamen

The purpose of this study is to examine the relationship between tax evasion and COVID-19 public health risk exposure in both high-corruption countries and low-corruption…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to examine the relationship between tax evasion and COVID-19 public health risk exposure in both high-corruption countries and low-corruption countries.

Design/methodology/approach

This study uses cross-sectional data from 138 countries. Tax evasion is measured using the shadow economy size (light intensity approach) as calculated by (Medina and Schneider, 2018). The SolAbility COVID-19 public health risk exposure index (CPHRE) is used to measure COVID-19 health risk. Also, the corruption perception index from transparency international is used for measuring the level of corruption.

Findings

This study finds that the level of tax evasion is positively related to CPHRE. Also, the results revealed a positive relationship between corruption and CPHRE. Furthermore, this study examined the moderation effect of corruption. The results indicate that the positive relationship between tax evasion and public health risk exposure is significant in low-corruption countries, but it is insignificant in high-corruption countries. These results imply that the severity of corruption can increase COVID-19 health risk exposure more than tax evasion.

Practical implications

Our findings are alerting the policymakers for the negative noneconomic consequences of tax evasion and corruption. It provides evidence that tax evasion and corruption can increase CPHRE.

Originality/value

According to the author’s knowledge, this is the first study that examines the relationship between tax evasion and COVID-19 risk and that tests the moderation effect of corruption.

Details

Journal of Financial Crime, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1359-0790

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Article
Publication date: 21 January 2021

Ahmed Yamen, Cemil Kuzey and Muhammet Sait Dinc

This paper examines the link between culture, institutional quality and real earnings management and accrual earnings management by combing the study by Hofstede (2001…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper examines the link between culture, institutional quality and real earnings management and accrual earnings management by combing the study by Hofstede (2001) and Enomoto et al. (2015). The paper tries to test the effect of culture on institutional quality and both real earnings management (REM) and accrual earnings management (AEM).

Design/methodology/approach

The sample of the research paper includes 38 countries. Hofstede cultural dimensions are used to measure cultural values. Public governance indicators published by the World Bank are used as a proxy for measuring the institutional quality. Earning management scores constructed by Enomoto et al. (2015, p. 191) are used for measuring real earnings management (REM) and accrual earnings management (AEM). Partial Least Square (PLS) based Structural Equation Modelling (SEM) is used to test the relationship between culture, institutional quality and earnings management.

Findings

The results support the relationship between culture and institutional quality. Also, the results reveal a significant relationship between culture and accrual earnings management, but an insignificant relationship between culture and real earnings management. In addition to that, another important finding is that institutional quality has a significant impact on real earnings management, but has no significant effect on accrual earnings management.

Practical implications

The results suggest that standard setters need to consider the quality of institutions to improve the quality of financial reports. Also, it highlights the role of both formal and informal cultures in shaping financial reports.

Originality/value

For the best of our knowledge, this the first time to test the link between culture and institutional quality and comparing the impact on both real earnings management and accrual earnings management.

Details

EuroMed Journal of Business, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1450-2194

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 18 March 2020

Yamen Koubaa and Amira Eleuch

The purpose of this paper is to test for gender-specific effects on odor-induced taste enhancement and subsequent food consumption in olfactory food marketing.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to test for gender-specific effects on odor-induced taste enhancement and subsequent food consumption in olfactory food marketing.

Design/methodology/approach

Lab experiments conducted among female and male participants using vanillin as a stimulus and ratings of sweetness, taste pleasantness and eating of sugar-free food as measures.

Findings

Odor-induced taste enhancement is gender-specific. Female consumers outperform male consumers in olfactory reaction and sweetness perception. While men outperform women in food consumption.

Research limitations/implications

Odor intensity was set to the concentration level of 0.00005per cent according to the findings from (Fujimaru and Lim, 2013). The authors believe that this intensity level is appropriate for both men and women. Still, there may be some gender effects on intensity levels, which are not explored here. The author’s test for the effects of one personal factor, gender and odor-induced taste enhancement of sugar-free food. The authors think that investigating the combined effects of more personal factors such as age, culture and so on adds to the accuracy of the results.

Practical implications

It seems that the stronger sensory capacities of women in terms of odor detection and recognition already confirmed in the literature extends to the cross-modal effects of this sensory detection and recognition on taste enhancement. It seems appropriate to tailor olfactory food advertising according to the gender of the target audience.

Originality/value

Odor-induced taste enhancement is still a novel subject in marketing. While most of the research has investigated the effects of smelling congruent odors on taste perception and food consumption among mixed groups of men and women, the value of this paper lies in the investigation of the potential moderating effects of gender on this relationship.

Details

Journal of Consumer Marketing, vol. 37 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0736-3761

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Article
Publication date: 10 January 2020

Ahmed Kamassi

The purpose of this study is to gain knowledge about Muslim consumer’s perceptions toward advertising practices.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to gain knowledge about Muslim consumer’s perceptions toward advertising practices.

Design/methodology/approach

The approach taken was qualitative methodology, using phenomenological method. The qualitative data through semi-structured interviews have been collected from 20 Muslim consumers, 9 participants were women and 11 were men. The interviews lasted between 45 and 60 min. Furthermore, documentation technique was used to cast further insight into the advertising practices and to corroborate other forms of evidence.

Findings

From Muslim consumer perceptions, this qualitative research has generated factors that may be considered in advertising practices. These factors consist of social values (family, tradition and culture), Islamic ethics and rules and regulations. In addition, several practices regarding advertising production were extracted to guide marketers when targeting Muslim consumers.

Research limitations/implications

The generalizability of the findings was limited because of convenience sampling and the small sample size.

Originality/value

This study contributes to the knowledge in the field by exploring factors and practices that should be considered in advertising practices when targeting Muslim consumers.

Details

Journal of Islamic Marketing, vol. 12 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1759-0833

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Article
Publication date: 28 March 2008

Yamen Koubaa

The purpose of this paper is to explore the impact of country of origin (COO) information on brand perception and brand image structure.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to explore the impact of country of origin (COO) information on brand perception and brand image structure.

Design/methodology/approach

Through an analytical review, research hypotheses were built. An empirical investigation was carried out among Japanese consumers. Two brands of electronics with different levels of reputation were investigated.

Findings

Results showed that COO had an effect on brand perception. This effect differs across brands and across countries of production. Brand‐origin appears to be of significant impact on consumer perception. Brand images are found to be multidimensional. Their structures differ across brands and across COO.

Research limitations/implications

COO has multiple effects on brand image perception. Brand image is multidimensional. This research dealt with one type of product among culturally similar respondents which may limit the finding.

Practical implications

Marketing actions should be customized across brands with different levels of reputation. Brand image should be assessed as a multidimensional concept incorporating multiple facets. Consumers are influenced by the brand‐origin. Marketers should be aware of this association.

Originality/value

This research tests the multidimensional aspect of brand image structure and effect of COO information on brand image structure. Results show that COO information affects both the degree of fragmentation of brand image as well as its composition.

Details

Asia Pacific Journal of Marketing and Logistics, vol. 20 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-5855

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 3 January 2017

Ketsuree Vijaranakorn and Randall Shannon

This study aims to develop a theoretical concept by examining the country image effects on luxury value perception, a matter past studies have overlooked. Multiple facets…

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to develop a theoretical concept by examining the country image effects on luxury value perception, a matter past studies have overlooked. Multiple facets of country image, cognitive and affective dimensions, have been developed to evaluate perceived luxury value and purchase intention. However, no prior studies have considered all the types of perceived luxury values: utilitarian value, hedonic value, symbolic value and economic value, considered in relation to cognitive and affective country image in an emerging country’s market. Accordingly, this study has attempted to explore the ways Thai luxury consumers perceive the image of the country and the influence of the perceived value of Thai luxury brands, to learn which country attributes strengthen the luxury brand’s value and customers’ purchase intention.

Design/methodology/approach

A total of 407 Thai respondents, who were luxury-product consumers who knew and previously had bought either Thai luxury brands or global luxury brands, comprised the final sample examined. Structural Equation Modeling was employed in this research to test the research hypotheses. The structural model proposed a causal relationship between two endogenous constructs, cognitive and affective country images, and five exogenous constructs: utilitarian value, hedonic value, symbolic value, economic value and purchase intention.

Findings

The findings confirmed that countries are like brands in that the perceived image of each country’s aspects, cognitive and affective, influences the perceived value in each dimension differently, and so affects purchase intention. This implies that the evaluation of perceived quality or perceived value for money, as in past studies, cannot accurately demonstrate what particular benefits consumers receive when they utilize the country-image cue. Country image has both symbolic and emotional significances for consumers. The findings have provided a more precise measure of the effects of country image as well as important information on country positioning the in the world market.

Research limitations/implications

There are some limitations in this study. The reliance on Thai samples from one city has limited the generalizability of the findings. Moreover, this study considered only one country of brand origin, and only one product category has been chosen as the stimulus, which together are the major limitations of this study. Future research could also consider further testing country image effects on value perception with other extrinsic attributes, rather than using a single cue, as this study did. Additionally, antecedent variables that may have an influence on country-image effects should be considered in future studies.

Practical implications

The relation of country image and value perception could help both governments and companies support their national brands more effectively, or to export products in accordance with the image aspect that most strongly impacts consumers’ positive perception of value. Moreover, it would be valuable for companies producing luxury products to know which country attributes strengthen the brand’s value. Luxury-brand managers will have to take these aspects into consideration when developing their communications strategies (Krupka et al., 2014).

Originality/value

There is a lack of research as regards the impact of a brand name’s perceived origin on the luxury perception associated with that brand (Salciuviene et al., 2010). This research is the first to investigate the theoretical framework of luxury value perception found in relation to cognitive and affective country images. From an academic perspective, this study sought to increase the theoretical research relating to the ambiguous conceptualization of the country-image effect on consumers’ perception of value in luxury products. Additionally, the relation of country image to luxury value perception could help both governments and companies support their national luxury brands more effectively, or to export luxury products in accordance with the image aspect that most strongly impacts consumers’ positive perception of value.

Details

Journal of Asia Business Studies, vol. 11 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1558-7894

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 15 July 2020

Akram Ramadan Budagaga

This paper aims to investigate bank-specific determinants affecting the dividend policy of commercial banks listed in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region countries.

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to investigate bank-specific determinants affecting the dividend policy of commercial banks listed in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region countries.

Design/methodology/approach

The study uses pooled and panel tobit and logit regression analyses based on 16-year unbalanced data with 1,593 firm-year observations collecting from 117 commercial banks listed in 11 MENA countries.

Findings

The results indicated that the main bank-specific factors affecting dividend payment decisions are bank size, profitability, capital adequacy, credit risk and bank age in the context of the MENA emerging markets. In addition, the analysis showed that the yearly dummy for the global financial crisis (2008–2009) has a significant negative effect, while the yearly dummy for the Arabic spring crisis (2010–2011) has no significant effect on the dividend payment decision of banks listed in the MENA region. Furthermore, the growth opportunity is not one of the key factors affecting dividend policies by banks in MENA emerging markets. Considering this information, it is reasonable to conclude that MENA region banks’ dividend decisions follow investment decisions. In other words, the dividend decisions and investment decisions are independent of each other. The findings support theories (hypotheses) of dividends such as residual, signalling, regulatory pressures, transaction cost and lifecycle.

Research limitations/implications

This study is restricted to a sample of one type of financial firm, conventional commercial banks listed in the MENA markets because of the problem of missing data and limited information on other financial firms for the same period, particularly Islamic banks. Moreover, the focus of this study was on factors that are considered bank fundamentals. However, ownership variables were not included in the study because of unavailability.

Practical implications

The results of this study have several important implications for banks’ dividend policymakers, regulators, analysts and investors. Dividend policymakers in MENA emerging markets seem to use residual dividend policy, in which they distribute dividends according to what is left over after all acceptable investment opportunities have been undertaken. These inconsistent, unstable dividend policy trends make it difficult for investors to predict future dividend decisions. Further, this practise may convey information to shareholders about a lack of positive future investment opportunities. This may negatively affect the share value of banks. Acquiring a broad understanding of the dividend behaviour of MENA banks enables regulators to take more effective regulatory actions to protect shareholders and depositors. Finally, the results of this study can help analysts and investors build their dividends predictions and investment strategies.

Originality/value

The banking sector plays a disproportionately large role in the development of emerging economies. Therefore, this study is one of the first to examine a large cross-country sample of MENA banks (117) for an extensive period (2000–2015). The study includes both the Global financial crisis and Arab uprising periods, including after the liberalization and recent economic reforms and structural changes in financial sectors across MENA countries.

Details

International Journal of Islamic and Middle Eastern Finance and Management, vol. 13 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1753-8394

Keywords

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